Poster nº 1 One sherd among fifty: On the significance of survey data in urban contexts (Ephesus/Turkey.)

Stefan Groh; V. Lindinger; A. Waldner; S. Ladstäter _ Austrian Archaeological Institute


Since 2000, the approximately 50 hectare large settlement in the so-called Upper City of Ephesus has become the focus of systematic archaeological survey and geophysical study. Embedded between the two city hills, Mount Panajir and Mount Bülbül , the results of geophysical measurements and comprehensive surveys point to an area with high building development, whereby selective diggings suggest a settlement history from Hellenistic to Late Roman times. In 2003, a comprehensive survey of artefacts was undertaken within 2,5 hectare of a settlement area built upon a natural plateau. The great amount of finds and the extremely great mean variation as well as wide range of scattered finds caused numerous challenges to the measuring methods applied. An interpretation of these artefacts was made together with the results of a wide-range GPS-survey and the geophysical data measured with magnetic and GPR equipment in a GIS. The combination of surface and subsurface data produced interesting conclusions on the patterns of construction and their chronological distribution over the area examined.

Poster nº 2 E-Mem: An Interactive Graveyard Information Management Tool& Virtual Memoriam Database

H. Johannsson, M. Felicori, C. Borgatti, S..Caraceni, L.Garutti,A. Vysniauskiene, I. Baliulyte, S. Zabiela, A. Sarris, E. Peraki

Abstract: E-Mem project was carried out under the framework of the EU program e-Content. Taking in account the large number of cemeteries (accounted more than 400.000) and the lack of a uniform communication and management graveyard platform in Europe , the project seek to create a tool that enables ubiquitous exchange of graveyard and related information over the www. Except the obvious applications of the portal in the management and services of modern cemeteries, a number of modules of the research project were focused in the cultural dimension of the cemeteries. The project defined the best practices for portraying information on cultural monuments in the context of graveyards and investigated the evolution of funeral practices in Europe . The changing patterns of cemetery locations were also explored by creating a number of thematic maps for the island of Crete , presenting the spatial distribution of the prehistoric and historic cemeteries, linked to multimedia information related to them. The above information contributed in the study of the evolution of the landscapes in terms of their representation and context production. To achieve the goals of the project, the participating members utilized mapping technologies through the use of GPS and EDM units, digitization and georeferencing techniques, SQL database construction, GIS mapping and presentation of the geographic information through the WEB. A number of pilot cemeteries were brought in the pool of the e-Mem portal, including the modern Orthodox cemetery of Rethymno , the Deutsche Soldaten Friedhof at Chania, the Moslem Cemetery of Yeni Mahalle at Komotini, the Municipal cemetery of Bologna (Certosa cemetery) and the Bernardines Polish cemetery in Vilnius . The significant historical context of the cemeteries and their monuments was emphasized. The ultimate product of the project focused in building a dynamic portal bringing together the different policies & standards of registering and offering info on the deceased in Europe, ensuring wider access to Europe's common heritage; one standard applicable to all regardless of their language, culture and religion; one standard which at the same time could serve information related to the historical and cultural value of the cemeteries and their significant monuments.

Poster nº 3 The settlement pattern of anciemt Icrria through a GIS approach. Part II : Data Visualization

Sophia Topouzi, Department of History-Archaeology, University of Athens _ Greece

Abstract: As it was presented at last year's CAA conferance at Prato (CAA 2004), Icaria, an island located in the Eastern Aegean Sea, on the path from Cyclades to Asia Minor , must have played a significant role among important Aegean civilizations. Thus, the presence of human activity on the island during the entire Antiquity should be considered as a fact. However, until today, archeological finds on the island remain scant, for various reasons, in a way that the ancient environment can't be reconstructed. In addition to that, there are only a few literature sources mentioning information about the area. Given the aforementioned facts, this PhD project deals with the reconstruction of ancient Icaria 's settlement pattern, using GIS analyses and predictive modeling. The aim of this poster is to present the visualization of all the data, used in the specific GIS. Thematic maps of the digitized background (contours, geological map, land use map, road network, water resources), combined with archaeological data from the GPS-recorded sites, results of the viewshed, cost distance and thiessen polygon analyses and the related statistics will be demonstrated.

Poster nº4 A multimedia presentation allowing interactive interpretation of Kastanas village.

C.H. Leomie Willoughby-Ellis _ University of Southampton

Abstract: A multimedia presentation allowing interactive interpretation of Kastanas village Traditional 2d reconstructions have been a valuable tool for presenting work to the public however this method denies the vagaries of the record to create a single image of that site. With the development of 3d modelling tools the computing community used sites to present the power of their software and rendering ability, creating computer reconstructions of archaeological sites, with varying amounts of input from the archaeologists involved. With the development of computing within archaeology many new debates have arisen over the use of this powerful tool and the use of the word reconstruction at all. It would be favourable to augment the word reconstruction with interpretation as this highlights the subjective approach of any illustrator.There are many aspects of interpretation that have been worrying archaeologists including the question of the strength of evidence. Some have suggested wire-framing areas we do not know about, others rendering them in varying degrees of opacity (Harrison Eiteljorg, II) and others have used VRML to allow users to alter parameters such as number of seats in an amphitheatre (Jonathan C. Roberts and Nick Ryan ). The site of Kastanas, near Thesoloniki , Greece , was extensively excavated and published. This multi phased site showed considerable change of plan and habitation practises in different periods. The visual experience of the inhabitants would be very different in each phase, with some phases characterised by individual detached homes contrasting with multi-room buildings squashed together. These differences are evident from the ground plan but there are many issues of interpretation within one phase, including basics such as the use of thatch or mud baked flat roofs. By using a multimedia interface the viewer can experience a walk-through of the village, with either the flat roof or the sloped thatch roof and see the difference for themselves. When they get into rooms they will have the ability to look around from a set point and click hot spots. Each hotspot will simultaneously tell the viewer where the data came from for that area (furniture/ ceiling/ oven etc), any pictures we have of it either in situ or on pottery, or an alternative rendering such as the movement of windows to another position. Two phases have been chosen, the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age, to highlight the different ‘feel' of building types and site use. Both periods will be represented in part by a walk-around and a static reconstructed room. The hope with this project is not only to provide a 3d model of the site and present this to the public but also to give a realistic multi variant picture while offering the variety of information and alternatives commensurate with the complexity of such interpretations. The aim of this project will be to inform through rendering styles, multimedia interfaces and metadata the incompleteness of the archaeological record even of a well-excavated and published site. Harrison Eiteljorg, II

Poster nº 5 For a Digital Repository of Rock Art in Portugal

J.Cabrita Freitas, M.Adler Abreu, Pedro Santos, António Martinho Baptista, João Zilhão - INETI

Abstract: The international community is nowadays trying to foster multidisciplinary research efforts to the implementation of digital libraries to render accessible repositories of human knowledge. One of the main objectives concerns the creation and preservation of data banks of cultural heritage, providing tools for a correct retrieval of information and presentation, and making it accessible to both science and the general public. These were in fact the guiding principles that lead the Portuguese Institute of Archaeology (IPA) and the National Center for Rock Art (CNART), together with the National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI) to join efforts in order to develop a technological process to produce 3D models of rock art in Côa Valley, containing a fantastic repository of Palaeolithic art, an huge amount of information and knowledge of that period of world history, discovered in the north of Portugal in the last years of the 20th century. This paper presents the framework assumed for the completion of this goal, stressing the effort to cover the several facets of this task, starting from the process 3D image acquisition using a laser scanner on site, the 3D image processing required to obtain the complete models, the production of replicas in several materials, and providing the tools to retrieve specific information of particular features of the Côa engravings. Several new features are made available with this work, namely the contactless dimensional analysis of the engravings, their profiles and the possibility of correlating that information with the type of tools used to produce those engravings since c. 25000 years ago, allowing that such incredible testimony could reach us to tell their story. The developed process is non-contact, accurate, has the required resolution for the majority of the engravings, and is user friendly, based on portable equipment. By these means, we expect to give a strong contribution for the complete capture and storage of those models and to fill in the database that can lead to a true repository of Palaeolithic and pos-palaeolithic rock art in Portugal .

Poster nº 6 Reconstructing the Roman Period Road Network of Crete through GIS

Maria Ilvanidou _ Dept. of History & Archaeology and Dept. of Computer Sciences, University of Crete

Abstract: Roman period is characterized by a different perception of space and management of its resources, a change which is well reflected by the dense road network construction within the Roman Empire . Although the archaeological evidence considering roman roads in Crete is scarce and fragmentary, information based on ancient sources, historical maps and itineraries of travelers in the island, is possible to enhance our knowledge of the integrated picture of the particular network. The present study is concerned with the reconstruction of the original trace of public road network connecting the major cities and settlements of Roman Crete. In order to achieve the goals of the study, a relational database was designed and implemented to manage and correlate all different types of information concerning the road infrastructure as well as sites and monuments related to it. Spatial analysis of the available data was carried out through GIS environment, based on measurements obtained through either digitization or GPS mapping techniques. Topographic data were overlaid on a 50m resolution digital elevation model of Crete , derived by SPOT stereoscopic satellite images. Emphasis was given mainly to the estimation of cost surface techniques and least cost path analysis. The results of above processes were cross-correlated to historical evidence as an attempt to reconstruct the communication routes through the mainland of the island.

Poster nº 7 A Multi-disciplinary Approach to Industrial Sites of the Vrokastro Region of Mirabello, Eastern Crete

Sarris, K. Kouriati, E. Kokkinou, E. Aedona, L. Karagianni, G. Vargemezis, G. Stamatis, M. Elvanidou, E. Katifori, M. Kaskanioti † , S. Soetens, Th. Kalpaxis, Y. Bassiakos, C. Athanassas; B. Hayden, T. Brennan

Abstract: Since 2002, a multi-disciplinary geophysical and geo-archaeological project has been carried out in the wider area of Priniatikos Pyrgos, within the Istron coastal area, in eastern Crete . The site, consisting of surface or partially buried relics spanning the prehistoric (4000 BC) to Roman periods and later historical periods, constitutes one of the best examples of the diachronic exploitation of the coastal regions in Crete . The goal of the project is to identify the function, size, and condition of the site of Priniatikos Pyrgos in relation to other coastal settlements in the Bronze Age and historical periods.

Topographic mapping through the use of EDM and GPS was employed for the mapping of the surface monuments and sites. Ikonos satellite imagery and a time sequence of aerial photographs were used for capturing the changes in the land-use patterns of the region. Further geomorphological information was collected through digitization of geological and environmental maps, together with a recent geological mapping survey and selected coring that was carried out in specific areas of interest. A number of plots were further explored through geophysical prospection techniques using magnetic, electric resistivity and electromagnetic methods. The above information was entered to a Geographical Information System which was connected to an elaborated database regarding the archaeological sites and their surrounding landscapes.

Geophysical data suggested that part of the site comprised workshop areas during the prehistoric and historical periods, indicating functional similarities to other ports identified on the northern and southern coasts, such as Kommos, Mochlos, Poros and Gouves. The workshop area was probably related to both ceramic production (mainly in the prehistoric periods) and metalworking (mainly in historical periods). Further evidence of architectural relics has been suggested by the processing of the geophysical data. Shallow trenching and the analysis of geological cores indicated that location of the Istron River near Priniatikos Pyrgos may have shifted over time and it is probably responsible for the deep colluvial deposition noticed in the wider coastal area. Finally, GIS tools have been used to further explore the cultural landscape by examining the communication among the settlements and the habitation trends in different chronological periods.

Poster nº 8 GIS Contribution in the Archaeology of Wine. A Case Study from Crete

Katerina Athasanaki _ Dept. of History & Archaeology and Dept. of Computer Sciences, University of Crete

Abstract: According to the written evidence, as well as the relevant archaeological finds, Crete occupies a significant place in the Mediterranean wine-landscape, however, not well known in the archaeological bibliography. The aim of this paper is to present the design of a GIS project for the reconstruction of the ancient cultural wine-landscape of Crete in a diachronic perspective, based mainly on the study of winemaking installations. A pilot area located in the mainland of Crete south of Herakleion, was chosen for the particular study. A number of geographic and climatic data, such as land use and geological maps, topography and meteorological data, together with archaeological information were implemented in the geographic database to be used in the spatial analyses that followed. In addition, a relational database including information of the archaeological record, the environmental and topographical settings of the sites was constructed. Subsequent spatial and statistical analyses of the available data were performed in a GIS platform. The combination of winemaking installations and other archaeological remains, written evidence, oral testimonies, physical environment and built space and the analysis of their quantitative and qualitative data through GIS, enables us to investigate several archaeological issues, such as the localisation of possible ancient ‘terroirs' and the comparative study of wine-making installations and techniques from the wider Mediterranean area.

Poster nº 9 Recapturing the Spatial Dynamics of the Venetial Occupation Period of Merabello, E. Crete through a GIS APProach

Marianna Katifori

Abstract: The county of Merabello, an administrative unit during the period of the Venetian Occupation (1211–1669 AD), located in East Crete, Greece, is divided environmentally in a wide arid region to the north and in a fertile plain region which extends to the south-west mainland. The road network which crosses the valley and connects central to east Crete, along which the most populated settlements were established, used to be -and still remains- a significant element of the region. In the end of 16 th century, after the construction of Spilaloga fort and the increase of the defense locations along the coastline, the rest of the county evolved into a region of high strategic importance. An increased concentration of monastery units has been also noticed in both areas of the county during the same period. Thus, Merabello county can be considered as indicative for studying the evolution of the natural and rural landscape, road and communication network, military and defense geography and the settlement patterns during the period of Venetian Occupation.

The research aimed towards the visual presentation and analysis of the cultural and environmental elements of the region through the fusion of diverse data collected by studying published sources, documents and inventories, precision mapping of the visible architectural relics through GPS surveying and digitization of the available geographic and topographic data. The above information was entered to a relational database which was ultimately used to link the cultural information with the rest mapping information layers. The digital elevation model was constructed based on the 20m elevation contours. Subsequent analyses including slope and aspect statistics, cost distance and site catchment analysis and viewshed analysis were performed in a GIS platform in order to study the spatial dynamics of the landscape during the Venetian Occupation period. The results were thoroughly examined to investigate the role of the monasteries and the exploitation of the surrounding environment, by exploring their location in terms of the natural environment and their distance or visibility from settlements, fortresses, watchtowers, road network and natural resources.

Poster nº 10 Collecting data bases about AEGEAN subjects on-line (dbas project)

A.m. jasink, M. Baldi, F. Carminati, L. Bombardieri, University of Florence - History and Geography Dpt.

Abstract: The aim of this project is to create a sort of linking database on different Aegean matters, in order to set new connections among materials or themes otherwise not easily related. Therefore this project clearly represents a new tool both with didactic and scientific purposes. Scientific aims The whole of materials considered come from the Middle and Late Aegean Bronze Age. The first subjects we are starting from, are the digital study of the wide corpus of Middle Minoan Glyptic (and in particular the Hieroglyphic seals), on one side, and the analytic setting of the different marks (in particular the Cypriote ones) found over ox.hide lingots, pottery and all the other supports. Technical devices Data Base implementation: didactic and technical steps. Analysis: · Row data collection · Row data analysis · Planning different data-structures · Choice of the most appropriate data-structure DB construction: · Data-structure design with Microsoft Access · Planning GUI for Data input · Design of GUI · Queries creation for data mining Web oriented DB · Data migration on web server, using open sources softwares o MYSQL for DB o PHP for input GUI and data publishing Project editors Scientific Director: Prof. A.M. Jasink (Aegean Civilizations. Dept of Antiquities. University of Florence ). Team members: Dr. M. Baldi, Dr. F. Carminati (Informatic Applications, Dept. of History and Geography. University of Florence ). Dr. L. Bombardieri (Ph.D. Near Eastern Archeology. Dept of Antiquities. University of Florence).

Poster nº 11 Archaeological Data Modeling using UML based on ISO19100 Standard

Susumu Morimoto, Teruko Usui, Yoshiaki Murao, Keiji Shimizu, Suguru Noda _ National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara

Abstract: Drawing is one of the most important methods to record the excavation work. But most of all drawings about archaeological features on the site are still handmade. How to draw is not standardized clearly until now and it is quite difficult to exchange the digitized data of drawing. To solve this unagreeable situation we began to study the structure of drawings about archaeological features. Drawing has a purpose to show the characteristics of each feature with its coodinates. In some cases, the archaeologists use the CAD system for drawings. But they distinguish only the categories of line, thick or thin, solid or dotted, dashed or two-dot chain, single or double etc. Line type does not necessarily reflect the meaning of archaeological features. We examine the information in the drawing of features using the UML (Uniform Modeling Language) . We think the Object Oriented method is the only way to resolve the problem to standardize the drawings based on ISO19100 Standards (GIS). We will show a Case Diagram about the archaeological information. Drawing of archaeological features has the class, FigureOfArchaeologicalFeatures which is divided for some classes. One of these classes, ArchaeologicalFeature has three categories such as ArchaeologicalCutFeatures, ArchaeologicalPileUpFeatures and ArchaeologicalPlaneFeatures. Cut Features are recognized topographically negative compared with its surroundings. Pile Up Features are recognized topographically positive and Plane Features are on the same level. The class of ArchaeologicalCutFeature has the entities like upperEndLine, lowerEndLine, assumptiveUpperEndLine, assumptiveLowerEndLine, independentLine and face. The class of ArchaeologicalPileUpFeatures has five entities, outline, ridgeLine, assumptiveOutline, assumptiveRidgeLine and face. The class of ArchaeologicalPlaneFeatures has entities as outline, assumptiveOutline, independentLine and face. In the drawing of the archaeological features we find another classes such as PositionOfFinds, PositionOfSpecimen, GroupOfArchaeologicalFeatures, AssistantLineOfArchaeologicalFeatureDrawing and so on. Drawing of the archaeolgical features also has different classes, FigureOfExcavationArea, FigureOfIntrusion, ReferencePoint adn FigureOfDeclaration. ReferencePoint shows ReferencePointOfLocation, RelationPointBetweenDrawings, DiscriminationPointOf ExcavationGrid and ReferencePointOfLevel. With the relation point we can find the relation between the drawings ( plan and section, entire area and detail). We hope this Class Diagram will help us to study of standardization and data exchange of the archaeological drawings on the system using GIS.

1 - Putting things together: Classification and analysis


Associative Multilingual Classification Architecture for Historical Artefacts

Damiano Bolla and Nick Ryan _ University of Kent

Abstract: An artefact may be classified according to a conventional typology, typically based on some aspect of its appearance such as shape or decoration, such a typology classification is normally different from person to person and even the same person does change it over the time. Equally, it may be related to other artefacts by its presumed function or mode of manufacture. Other key variables may include the location and chronology of manufacture and of discovery. However, typology alone is of limited value and cannot fully document the processes of classification undertaken by the individual expert. It is even less useful to others who wish to understand the full range of associations between artefacts and their contexts of design, manufacture, use and deposition, much of which may remain hidden in the notebooks of experts. The situation is even further complicated by the fact that both the accessible and hidden documentation may exist in multiple languages that need to fit with the classification framework that is currently being used. In this paper we present a classification architecture that can be used to capture and document the knowledge and understanding of individual experts. The model is able to capture the need of classification and reclassification of artefacts, the need to associate semantic knowledge with an artefact and the need to be able to deal with knowledge in different languages. The approach is illustrated by an extensive case study of the classification of a collection of Japanese swords. Classification of Japanese swords does pose a particular challenge in terms of complexity of the subject and the peculiarity of the language. The case study demonstrates how technological, cultural, temporal and bibliographic associations are built up over time as the system is used to document these artefacts. The unique capability of the system to support and enhance the learning process of the researcher is shown by the refinement of the details embedded in the classification. The knowledge that is then embedded in the resulting web of relationship is further enhanced by the attached images and by the embedded support for different language views. Translation of words from one view to the other is aided by the web of knowledge that is bound to a word and even after the word is translated to another language the relationships are not lost but form an essential part of the translation. The formally strict definition of the architecture allows for the creation of a web of knowledge that retain in itself the semantic meaning of the classification and is therefore logically searchable.

A Class Apart: an experiment in facetted classification of archaeological information.

William Kilbride _ Archaeology Data Service, University of York

Abstract: A Class Apart: an experiment in facetted classification of archaeological information Access to information is a regular theme of CAA, with frequent and detailed discussions of electronic publishing, online databases, web-based GIS and all manner of interoperating portal technologies. This fascination in archaeology mirrors a sustained drive to make information available online from all manner of cultural heritage and commercial purposes, and a growing expectation that such services should be available electronically at all times of the day and night. But ubiquity is a challenge as well as an opportunity. As more becomes available so it becomes progressively more difficult to guide users to the resources they seek, let alone to disclose the extents of the information available. Access confounds discovery: the pervasive mass overwhelms users and undermines data providers. This problem has been noted for several years, and many different solutions have been proposed. Year on year, CAA has reported the need for flexible data standards for resource discovery, and year on year these standards have been developed, refined and implemented. There have been regular discussion on communication protocols, and reviewed their operation. This paper will establish another element to the ongoing discussion by introducing a tool kit for facetted classification of archaeological information, and providing a worked example of facetted classification of archaeological data. It has long been recognised that classification is a useful way to let allow users browse concepts, creators to control vocabularies and allow computers to index information effectively. A number of related classifications exist within archaeology. Typically these provide a hierarchical route to any information point, but as the structure becomes more complicated so it becomes harder to use the hierarchy to browse. One solution to this problem is to use a facetted classification. In a facetted classification, any data point can belong to any number of hierarchies depending on the facets of the data. Facetted classification is not new, but has not been widely implemented as the technology to allow this sort of multi-dimensional information retrieval has proven hard to implement. In the last twelve months, the ADS in association with Adiuri Systems have been developing and refining facetted classification tools for heritage information. The first version of this toolkit was completed in November 2004 and work continues. Based on Adiuri's ‘Waypoint' software it provides an innovative and powerful interface to complex and extensive datasets. Waypoint classifies information by taking domain knowledge and expressing them as interrelated hierarchies of concepts. Applying this knowledge map to a data set allows every possible combination of query to be processed in advance. Because billions of possible combinations are known to the system, and can be displayed, users are able to navigate round an information space that has been mapped out for them. Rather than typing and hoping, an iterative query flow allows them to focus on specific and relevant information rapidly. This paper will discuss various aspects of the development of these tools including the process of building and configuring hierarchies; the role of mapping and geospatial data; user reactions to an unfamiliar technology and the potential for extension and deployment in other contexts. The presentation will locate these developments in the context of facetted classification.

SECANTO – The Section Analysis tool

D r. Vicent Mom _ University of Amsterdam

Abstract: SECANTO – The SEction ANalysis TOol Describing and comparing artefacts are time consuming activities. Take for example hand-made ceramics from the iron age. In The Netherlands, about a dozen archaeologists have published comprehensive overviews of iron age excavations, containing many hundreds images of such ceramics. Finding a look-alike involves leafing through about 15 kilos of relevant literature. And once a look-alike is spotted, how good is the similarity ? A next publication may very well contain a better one. The conscious researcher is obliged to scan all available literature, and preferably twice as she/he might easily overlook a good candidate during the first search. SECANTO The Secanto system addresses both finding and comparing shapes. The foundation of the system is a data base, containing the low resolution images of (currently) more than 1200 profiles of hand-made ceramic vessels from The Netherlands and Northern Germany dating from 500 BC – 400 AD. A point-and-click data entry screen enables the user to enter her/his own profile and within 2 minutes the best look-alikes (best, according to a calculated similarity parameter) are retrieved from the data base. As the system is built using HTML-embedded JavaScript, it can be accessed through the Internet. The images, essentially two-dimensional information carriers, are directly compared. Parameters like vessel volume, diameters, angles, ratios and vessel body convexities are calculated from the image. They are not used in the comparisons (unless the user indicates so). The use of calculated similarities also underpins statements like ‘Vessel A looks more like vessel X than vessel Y' and increases the objectivity of typological assignments. Other interesting offspring of Secanto is the possibility to investigate the internal consistency of typologies, and a PCA module which calculates optimal two-dimensional representations of groups of vessels, based on the corresponding similarity matrix. Such representations, in which look-alikes are close together while more distinct vessels are further apart, are much more instructive than the ‘linear' representation in the original publications from which the images were copied. PROJECTS Currently, the following Secanto projects are in progress: 1. Setting up a data base with profiles of hand-made ceramics from Northern Europe covering the period 500 BC – 400 AD 2. Nijmegen Castra – the material consists of native ceramics from the Roman period. It is especially used to optimise the system for partial (‘rim-only') profiles. 3. Damaxis: Secanto used to compare the shapes of Danish Mesolithic axes. NOTE (for internal use) The lecture would consist of a short introduction and a live demonstration of the system: searching the data base, creating vessel groups based on site / shape / type, different search criteria, apparent re-use of images, other artefact categories (axes, shoes, arrow points etc.), depending on the time available.

An Automated Pottery Fragment Classifier for Archaeological Studies

Gulsebnem Bishop, Sung-Hyuk Cha, and Charles C. Tappert _ Pace University

Abstract: We are developing an automated system to assist archaeologists in matching and classifying pottery fragments quickly and inexpensively. This study can significantly help archaeological studies with the reconstruction of pottery fragments. Thousands of pottery fragments are unearthed every year in excavations and they are usually simply recorded and then discarded. It is often impossible to even photograph or record the measurements of these fragments, let alone to try to assign them to specific categories or classes. This classification process is not only tedious but also costly and usually requiring trained craftsmen. Finally, even with trained craftsmen on the study it is often impossible to identify and record an object without adding some written interpretation, so the lack of objectivity in documentation is a significant problem. Even though there are number of studies in this field, none of the current approaches facilitate the matching task for archaeologists by providing them with a graphical user interface for matching and classification. As Kampel and Sablatnig (2003) note, “The archeometry of archaeology still suffer from lack of methodology and a tool that will help in matching, analyzing and classifying of artifacts is greatly needed.” Conventional documentation methods have failed to record these fragments. A number of automated solutions have been presented, but they have not been very user-friendly. It should also be noted that archaeologists require portable tools with a readily accessible power source on site. Leitao and Stolfi (2002) lead the way in the study of matching fragments by describing an algorithm for reassembling unknown objects broken into many pieces. They proved it was possible to use automation to identify adjacent fragments by matching the shapes of the outline. McBride (2003) also dealt with the problem of partial curve matching. Like Leitao and Stolfi, he also applies the multi-scale approach to fragment matching in order to reduce computational costs. The multi-scale approach also allows him to identify possible matches. Out of fifty-four top matches, his return result was successful with twenty-three correct matches. In light of this previous work, our approach consists of two stages. The first stage is to build a graphical user interface and make the template matching algorithm run successfully with digital images. The second stage is to test the program with original pottery fragments. We have concluded the first stage of our study with preliminary and somewhat successful results. We have constructed a graphical user interface using Matlab software to assist us in developing a template matching algorithm. The purpose of the graphical user interface is to make the application user friendly for people who do not have facility with computing equipment. We currently have a total of 160 images consisting of four different shapes: amphorae, cups, skyphoi, and hydriae. The rationale for choosing these four shapes is that these shapes are very distinct. An amphora was a two-handled Greek vase, generally with a swollen belly, narrow neck, and a large mouth. They were often used to transport wine or oil. The cup and the skypos were used as drinking vessels but they have very different shapes. The hydria was a three-handled water jug with two handles on the sides for lifting and a third at the back for pouring. After a vase is chosen, a random piece of the vase is cropped and this cropped image is compared against images of the same shape in the database. The purpose of the template matching process is to eliminate the lesser matching pieces and to narrow the choices by identifying the top three matching pieces in the image database. The algorithm identifies the cropped pieces with 70% accuracy within the top three choices. The identification process currently takes 2-3 minutes for each cropped image, so the speed of the program as well as its accuracy needs improvement. The template matching algorithm finds every location within the compared images that looks like the pattern we are looking for. The algorithm defines a distance metric between arrays and finds the sub arrays within the full image. Even though this method is slow, it quickly eliminates most positions in the searched text from being considered a possible match. The remaining matches are evaluated against the main template for possible matches. In summary, we are taking the digital images of whole pottery and artificially as well as randomly cropping the image of the pottery. We are running this cropped image against a database of similar images trying to find the best match in a jigsaw puzzle fashion by using shape, color and motives on the cropped piece. Therefore, we are attacking the general problem of real pottery fragment matching with this preliminary approach. The benefits of this method in the context of archaeology are numerous. The accuracy and speed of matching pottery fragments is one of the most important problems of archaeology. This system could provide a quick and inexpensive solution to the archaeological pottery fragment classification problem, and result in the saving and possible reconstruction of pottery fragments currently being discarded due to lack of staff, time, and money. References: Kampel, M. and R. Sablatnig. Virtual Reconstruction of broken and unbroken Pottery. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on 3-D Digital Imaging and Modeling, 2003. Leitao, H. C. G. and J. Stolfi. Multiscale Method for Reassembly of Two-Dimensional Fragmented Objects. IEEE Trans. On Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 24 (9), 2002. McBride, J. C. and B. B. Kimia. Archaeological Fragment Reconstruction Using Curve Matching. Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshop.

Quantitative analysis of some archaeological objects of astronomical and chronological importance.

Harald Gropp, Universitaet Heidelberg

Abstract: Some archaeological finds of astronomical and chronological importance will be discussed. My talk will focus on a 2000 year old Gaulish calendar which was found more than 100 years ago and on a socalled sky disk, more than 3500 years old, found 6 years ago. If time allows, some further astronomical aspects of Near Eastern and Mesoamerican archaeology will be briefly discussed. In the past the relation between archaeology and the history of mathematics and astronomy has not been without problems. Sometimes the quantitative analysis of archaeological finds and the use of certain mathematical methods were often not well received by the archaeological experts. In particular, if astronomy is involved, there has been a lot of problems and misunderstandings in the past. The calendar of Coligny was found in the small town of Coligny , north of Lyon , in 1897 as a bronze plate, broken into many pieces. It describes 5 years of a calendar in Gaulish language in Latin script. The calendar is about 2000 years old and was probably used in Gaul in the first century BC before the conquest of Gaul by the Romans. Today the calendar can be seen in Lyon in the "Musee de la civilization gallo-romaine". Altogether, this calendar is one of the few written sources of the Celts and an important witness of their scientific achievements. The calendar of Coligny and the astronomical knowledge which it contains could open the way to a better understanding of Celtic culture in the future. Since the calendar of Coligny was the earliest document in the Gaulish language which was found again, it was discussed in the last century mainly by scholars of Celtic languages. Only in the last 20 years the calendar was also investigated from the point of view of astronomy, mathematics and the history of these sciences. Concerning archaeology itself the calendar of Coligny has not been discussed very much since its excavation in 1897. The sky disk of Nebra was found in Nebra ( Germany ) in 1999. It is a bronze disk showing several objects of probably astronomical importance. The disk is more than 3500 years old.Whether the objects on the disk are better seen as symbolic representations of celestial objects or how much a quantitative analysis makes sense will be discussed. The disk is now shown in a special exhibition in Halle ( Germany ) and will be discussed in an international conference in February 2005. There are many proposals to interpret the objects on the disk as the sun, the full moon, the crescent, Venus, a boat, the Milky Way, just stars, certain constellations of stars, the Pleiades, Orion, etc. It will be discussed how all these explanations can be investigated using quantitative methods. Whereas in the case of the calendar of Coligny the discussion was restricted to a small circle of insiders for nearly a century after its discovery the sky disk of Nebra obtained an enormous public interest, also outside of the scientific community. Starting from these two examples the general problem of how to deal with such objects in an interdisciplinary way between archaeology, mathematics, and astronomy will be discussed, not only in the European context. There are also other astronomical and chronological problems related to archaeological finds, e.g. in Mesoamerica and in the Ancient Near East. In the future, and in particular for the rest of this century, the world should be seen with two eyes, i.e. in a stereoscopic way of more than one discipline in order to better learn about the astronomical knowledge and the chronology of our past.

2- Imaging Atlantida: 3D reconstruction and nautical archaeology


Underwater Surveys and Remote Sensing - The 2005 Corinthian Gulf Expedition

Alexis Catsambis _ Texas A&M University & Institute of Nautical Archaeology

Abstract: From mid-May to mid-June of 2005, a team of scientists will be conducting an important underwater archaeological survey in the NE Corinthian Gulf utilizing the latest in remote sensing technology and data processing capabilities. This large scale survey will be a collaborative effort between the Institute of Nautical Archaeology , Texas A&M University , the University of Birmingham (U.K.), the British School of Athens , the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research and several Archaeological Ephorates of the Greek State including the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities. The goal of the survey is to bring to light the underwater cultural heritage of this important and unexplored area of the country so that it may be protected and studied. In addition, through undertaking such significant surveys, the field of underwater archaeology in Greece will be promoted and it is hoped that the general public will take note of the importance of protecting the country's underwater archaeological treasures. A mosaic of civilizations and cultures has inhabited this very old region of Greece , leaving behind plenty of evidence of their stay. Its history begins well before 1500 BC and continues through subsequent Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Frankish and Ottoman times. The potential for the underwater survey is notable as the area is littered with submerged structures and has also yielded an impressive bronze statue of Poseidon, now in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens . Towers and fortifications guard the entrances to the natural harbors, while prominent city states of antiquity and later lay nearby. What we know, however, ends with the coastline; anything deeper remains completely unexplored. The team will be composed of archaeologists and nautical archaeologists from various universities and institutes in the United States of America and Europe . They will conduct visual surveys, verify targets located with remote-sensing techniques, and will also digitally map a series of submerged port facilities located within the area. In addition to the archaeologists, two research vessels carrying the latest in remote-sensing technology, as well as a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), will be supplied by RPM Nautical Foundation. The first, the R/V Hercules, is a 37-m long vessel that is specifically designed for conducting underwater archaeological research. It is intended to act as a self-sufficient base of operations, housing crew and scientists, and capable of deploying its ROV, remote sensing equipment (both an extremely sophisticated multi-beam system and side-scan sonar), as well as hosting diving operations. The vessel is also equipped with a positioning system which utilizes a dedicated satellite and advanced data processing capabilities. It carries a tender which can act as a dive-boat and carries its own global positioning system. The second research vessel to be used is the R/V Juno. At 8 m long it is very capable at near-shore surveying, thus complementing the Hercules' open- water capabilities. It too is equipped with a sophisticated shallow-water multi-beam system as well as three magnetometers. The vessel also carries a dynamic positioning system (DGPS) which is able to accurately locate the R/V Juno in real-time within a meter. The methodology utilized for surveying the region will be as follows. The R/V Hercules will cover the majority of the survey area three-dimensionally mapping the sea-floor using the onboard multi-beam system. In depths greater than 130m, side-scan sonar will instead be used to survey the bottom. Meanwhile, the R/V Juno will proceed to survey the shallower waters (40m and less) using its own multi-beam system. If targets of interest appear through any of these means, as well as through visual surveys, subsequent examination will follow either through magnetometer surveying, further dives, or the ROV. The aim is to retrieve as much information as possible from any potential sites without disturbing them. Underwater remote-sensing technology, discussed in detail in the paper, allows for this aim to be completed efficiently and accurately. Large areas that previously took weeks to investigate can now be covered in a matter of days. Within certain parameters, the entire bottom may be mapped three-dimensionally, allowing for the archaeologist to have a representation of a site before personally investigating it. Also, one may now survey in deeper waters allowing for the possibility of untouched sites to be discovered. The inaccessibility of deeper waters, as well as the more benevolent physical environment, promotes a better state of preservation for these sites. This technology, however, is not without its weaknesses and these need and will be addressed. We must not forget that these new abilities are but one means to reach our goal of gathering and promoting knowledge. Nevertheless, provided they are used properly, the potential these tools hold is too great for the archaeological community to ignore.

Combined Use of Sonar and Total Station Measurements in Nondestructive Underwater Investigations at the Fizine near Portorož Site

Andrej Gaspari, Sašo Poglajen _ Institute for Mediterranean Heritage

Abstract: The article presents the applied procedures and results from the first phase of the underwater investigations project carried out on the Roman port complex at Fizine near Portorož. The Underwater Archaeology Team of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Slovenia and the Institute for Mediterranean Heritage of the University of Primorska and colleagues are executing these investigations. The investigational campaign at Fizine is incorporated in the »Underwater to Public Attention. Research and New Technological Concepts for Visualisation of Underwater Archaeological Heritage« project. Both the Culture 2000 program of the European Union and the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Slovenia co-finance this project. The Fizine site comprises of the well-preserved remains of a port along the coastal part of the seafloor as well as the nearby workshop and living couarters complex, partly investigated already during rescue excavations in 1998. The port is situated at a depth of between ca. 0.5 and 5 m . An extensive embankment, which elongated and deepened the operative coastline for boat landings, and the walls, made of two fronts of massive stone blocks and intermediary fill, thereupon it are the composing parts of the port. Port wals, or piers, compose two large rectangular areas, which are divided by a poorly preserved partition wall. It is not yet clear what purpose or function they served; they were probably not for securing ships or boats, rather areas for breeding or a nursery for seafood. Finds from the seafloor, discovered during excavations in 1963-1964 and 1989, are indicative of the chronological span of the port's operation. For the most part these finds comprise of fragments of amphoras, kitchen wares and oil lamps as well as fishing tackle from the period between the 1st century BC and the beginning of the 5th century AD; this also coincides with the chronological span determined at the nearby coastal site. To evaluate the preservation of underwater structures and to prepare the basis for further investigational procedures constituted the main goals of the first phase of investigations. The advantage of this coastal site at a relatively small depth allowed for the combined application of two entirely different nondestructive methods. Among the hydrographical metods, a sonar survey of depth was carried out in the specific area of the site. The result was a digital elevation model (DEM) of the seafloor, including well-displayed archaeological structures. In continuation of the procedure, the sonar surveying results were supplemented with EDM measurements. We implemented the regular procedure of direct measurement using a total station, with which the geometry of the individual stone blocks was also recorded. Priority was given to those stone blocks still in situ as well as to the distribution of remains and pavements. A total of almost 1100 blocks were thus documented, more than 300 of which were in their primary position, while the remainder were not. The applied methods proved an optimal combination. Acoustic sonar surveying enabled a relatively expeditious realization for generating the wider DEM, which was then supplemented with a more precise documentation of the distribution of stone blocks. This then allowed for the 3D reconstruction of the current stance of the port.

Nautical and Underwater Archaeology and Three-dimensional Reconstruction: 2 Case studies

Tiago Miguel D'Oliveira Xavier Conde Fraga

Abstract: In this new world of computerized reconstructions and three-dimensional visualizations tools like Rhinoceros™ are allowing the prepared archaeologist to reach new scientific goals and are helping to bridge the gap between the specialized scientific community and the general public. Nautical Archaeology is using these new tools to analyze and comprehend new and old sites. The author intends to present, using two cases studies, the beginnings of what it is expected to become a standard practice, computerized three-dimensional reconstruction. Most of what Nautical Archaeology studies are found underwater and one of the main difficulties of working underwater is visualization. In a marine world visibility is usually stated in meters or in several cases centimetres. This low visibility conditions makes the underwater archaeologist work difficult, as him and the people involved in the project rarely can see the site in its entirety. In the first case is showed the ability to recreate on the surface the whole underwater site allowing for the archaeologists to have a complete idea of the site context. But the use of computerized reconstructions goes beyond faithful replicas. In the second case study is depicted the reconstruction process of an entire ship, Santo Antonio de Tanná, from its known remains. Both reconstructions are not completed. However they are the first steps to achieve two distinct goals using the same technology and they bring an indication of the advantages and shortcomings of computer reconstruction as it stands today.

Digital Imaging and Virtual Diagnosis of Artifacts for Conservation

C. Wayne Smith _ Nautical Archaeology Program, Texas A&M University 


Through the Wilder 3-D imaging Lab in the Nautical Archaeology Program, digital imaging technologies combined with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computer Tomographic Imaging are used to develop conservation strategies for complex artifacts, rapid prototyping of one-of-a-kind artifacts and virtual excavation of very fragile artifacts. This paper will discuss the use of these tool for teaching the fundamentals of Archaeological Digital Imaging and Conservation.

Projecto de Valorização Turística do Património Arqueológico Submerso de Quarteira – Uma Aplicação Multimédia para o Futuro

Manuel Maia _ Hipocausto


O projecto de Valorização Turística do Património Arqueológico Submerso de Quarteira foi elaborado com o intuito de valorizar turisticamente sítios ou locais, através de itinerários museológicos subaquáticos situados na freguesia de Quarteira, concelho de Loulé. Visando a observação não só das estruturas arqueológicas como também das diferentes morfologias geológicas resultantes da alteração costeira, serão criadas visitas de cariz turístico cultural realizadas com recurso a escafandro autónomo, moto submarinas ou ainda, barcos com fibra de vidro. Do âmbito do projecto será ainda a elaboração de uma aplicação multimédia interactiva que incluirá a reconstituição hipotética em três dimensões dos sítios arqueológicos, assim como dos fenómenos que estiveram na origem da sua submersão.

3- Through land and imagination: 3D Landscapes


Real Time and 3D Landscape design with OpenSource tools: towards a new and interactive way to reconstruct ancient landscapes.

Sofia Pescarin, Luigi Calori, Carlo Camporesi _ CNR ITABC, CINECA, Univ. Bologna

Abstract: The OpenSource approach offers today new possibilities in the field of Cultural Heritage. New 3D tools are now available and particulary useful for real time and 3D reconstruction of archaeological landscape. The processing of geographical, GIS and Remote Sense data can be completely mantained even in the creation of Virtual Reality Applications. The paper describes the application of tools such as OpenSceneGraph and Virtual Terrain in the case of the Archaeological Park of Appia Antica (ancient via Appia, Rome - Italy )

Speeding up visualisation of Medieval urban landscapes: John Speed, GIS, and 3D

Steve Trick, Keith Lilley, Chris Lloyd _ School of Geography , Queen's University Belfast , University Road

Abstract: Speeding up visualisation of Medieval urban landscapes: John Speed, GIS, and 3D STEVEN TRICK, Keith Lilley, Chris Lloyd, Queen's University Belfast ‘Mapping the Medieval Urban Landscape', a two year project funded by the AHRB, is seeking to further our understanding of town planning processes in the middle ages through the spatial analysis of a number of the 'new towns' of Edward I. The project involves fresh field survey with GPS and other technologies, and data integration and analysis with GIS. One end-product of the project is an atlas of Edwardian new towns, featuring reconstructions of the original layout of these towns, based on a variety of cartographic, archaeological and documentary sources. Two-dimensional reconstructions are created using GIS, and 3D reconstructions are generated to aid visualisation of the urban landscape. While the two-dimensional reconstructions can rely on established cartographic techniques, representation in 3D is somewhat more problematic, with vector lines and polygons translating unconvincingly into 3 dimensions. Perhaps ironically, inspiration has come from the maps of 17th century cartographer John Speed, who through a degree of artistic license and 'cartoon' style icons, produced very immediate and digestible depictions of the historic towns he visited. It is suggested that the integration of Speed's style into GIS-based 3D reconstructions would not only improve end-user visualisation, but also retain the benefits of GIS in maintaining correct spatial relations between plan elements. This paper presents the results of experimenting with this hypothesis. Techniques presented include integrating fragments of Speed maps with Ordnance Survey mapping, and exploring some new features of ESRI ArcScene 3D viewer which enables extrusion of vector elements and also insertion of 3D primitives into the maps.

Integrating geographic and 3D approaches to the study of visual space: Late Bronze Age Akrotiri

Eleftheria Paliou, David Wheatley _ University of Southampton

Abstract: Akrotiri, also known as the “ Pompeii of the Aegean ”, is one of the most important prehistoric archaeological sites of this region, principally due the exceptional level of preservation. The prehistoric town was buried by a huge volcanic eruption around 1646BC and brought to light in 1967. The small part of the town that has been excavated to date offers a diverse range of unique archaeological evidence, including impressive architectural remains of multi-storeyed buildings and a plethora of wall-paintings which embellished their walls. Since the discovery of the settlement many aspects of the architecture and the urban space have been studied. The issue of visual perception in the Theran built environment has been raised, especially in the context of murals whose essential symbolic significance is acknowledged by the great majority of the researchers. A review of the relevant literature during the last twenty five years suggests that the form and structure of architectural space, and the positioning of the wall-paintings in the settlement are a rich source of data on Theran society, and are redolent with social meanings. This paper contrasts the potential benefits of the application of 3D modelling and spatial technologies (principally GIS) to the study of social aspects of architecture and the built environment in LBA Akrotiri. On one hand, immersive 3D modelling enables a kind of ‘virtual phenomenology' that – it has been argued – brings the observer one step closer to human-scale experience of the environment and so facilitates the formation of subjective, intuitive, and qualitative statements about human perception in space. GIS-based visual analysis, by contrast, has established a more formal, quantitative approach to the study of visual experience that permits the development of substantive methodologies for the formal investigation of the visual structure of spaces, relating cognitive and perceptual factors with the spatial entities that structure human visual space. Though quite different these two approaches each has strengths, and it is anticipated that combining the best aspects of each could offer further insights to the social meaning of prehistoric built environment. This approach, however, is hindered by (a) the limitations of two-dimensional GIS, which significantly reduce the usefulness of e.g. viewshed or isovist analysis when applied to the built environment and (b) the absence of established formal methods for analysing rendered 3D spaces. In an attempt to develop new methods for the study of built environment, the capabilities of both 3d modelling and GIS software are investigated using real and simplified examples of Theran architecture based on Akrotiri. The possibilities and limitations of existing systems are discussed, and their potential contribution to the study of social aspects of the visual space is examined. Finally, we discuss the possibilities of truly integrated approaches for which ‘off the shelf' software solutions are currently not available.

DEMs show that modern features mould the archaeological landscape

Renate Gerlach, Irmela Herzog, Julia von Koblinski _ Rheinisches Amt für Bodendenkmalpflege

Abstract: In the past, digital elevation models (DEM) were used in archaeology for predictive modelling, reconstruction of old roads, and visibility calculations. With high-resolution elevation data, archaeological monuments like burial mounds and ancient field structures can be detected. Some archaeological applications discussed the accuracy of the DEM data and the interpolation results. Adopting similar approaches for the Rhineland ( Germany ) is associated with substantial difficulties: This paper shows that in the Rhineland high-resolution DEMs reflect modern features and that the proportion of the surface changed by these modern structures is at least 16 percent in some areas. In DEMs of rural areas in the Rhineland , prominent features are motorways, roads, bridges, and railway tracks, and this is in part due to the fact that the areas used for intensive farming are fairly flat. Pits used for extracting brickearth, gravel, or marl (loess with calcium carbonate) constitute another factor which formed the archeological landscape. Since most of the pits have been refilled, they are hardly discernible by field-walking. Where the soil used for filling a pit contains archaeological finds, the field walker will detect a pseudo-site. Therefore the Rhineland Archaeological State Service puts much effort into identifying these pits. A geographic information system is being developed that lists pits from different sources: Historic and modern maps, soil maps and rectified aerial photographs are explored to locate pits and heaps. An important tool for detecting partly refilled pits are DEMs supplied by the Ordnance Survey institution responsible for the Rhineland . The data consists of a grid with 10 metre resolution, and we carried out several tests to verify that the elevation data is fairly accurate. With this data, we are able to identify typical brickearth pits with a diameter of at least 50 metres . In some areas, a density of twelve pits per km² can be demonstrated by DEM analysis. We tested several visualisation techniques for the DEM data and found that relief shading with different shades of grey is optimal for detecting pits. With this method, the global differences in elevation are no longer visible, whereas the local differences come to the fore. On these DEM maps we also identified traces of former sunken roads. Since ploughing will gradually erase these traces, it is important to document them. In addition, ploughing will move soil from other areas of the field into this depression, whereby artefacts may be relocated. Recently, we made some tests using more accurate laser scanning data, with irregularly distributed points having a distance between 1 and 2 meters from each other. With this data, small-scale sunken roads can be detected, as well as Second World War bomb craters, which have a diameter of about 10 meters . It will be shown that modern pits and heaps have changed the landscape in three regions of the Rhineland with different geological backgrounds. The problem is not restricted to the Rhineland: In Belgium , the Netherlands , Great Britain , and other European countries the brickmaking industry removed a substantial amount of the soil, and most of those pits have been refilled.

The analysis of movement through space using two and three-dimensional techniques: A case study from Southern Spain

Elizabeth De Gaetano, Oxford Archaeology

The studies of how people perceived and interacted with their surrounding landscape in the past aims to understand how people shaped and were shaped by, the worlds in which they lived and is inevitably linked to how they were able to move and what they were able to see. One of the most influential theories related to movement and the relationship between spaces is that by Hillier and Hanson known as ‘Access Analysis'. This work has been further augmented by more recent developments in spatial theory which now include ideas related to viewpoints, viewsheds or ‘isovists'. Although these methodologies have been successfully applied to numerous archaeological examples, they have been subject to various criticisms by those who look less at the material aspects of culture and favour a more phenomenological perspective. The aim of this paper is to briefly describe both theoretical approaches and to examine the roles that the technologies of GIS and 3D play when applied to two very distinct methods of analysis and interpretation. At the centre of the study undertaken was the Roman Urban town of Italica . Following the work carried out on the site, it can be argued that the combination of both two and three-dimensional representations to answer questions as to how people viewed and moved within their immediate surroundings, is an interesting exercise. The combined application of scientific methodologies together with the more meaningful aspects of archaeological investigation may prove to be a compromise that will yield interesting results enabling us further to understand and construct how people shaped and were shaped by, the worlds in which they lived.

4 - What you see is what you get: 3D Reconstruction


Measuring deformations of wheel-produced ceramics using high resolution 3D reconstructions

Avshalom Karasik, Hubert Mara, Robert Sablatnig, Uzy Smilansky _ Weizmann Institute of Science

Abstract: Many artifacts, such as wheel-produced ceramics, are intended to be axially symmetric. Therefore, the boundaries of their intersections by planes that are perpendicular to the axis of rotation should be perfect circles. However, these ideally symmetric objects may suffer deformations when still on the wheel, or during the drying and firing stages. As a result the afore-mentioned sections will deviate from perfect circles. The introduction of accurate measuring devices such as 3D scanning cameras has made 3D representations of pottery available. Using these data, it is now possible to deduce the deformations of wheel-produced pottery. A systematic study of these deformations may reveal the technological flaws that induced them, and might possibly be used to characterize workshops methods and production patterns. A quantitative measure of the deformations can be obtained by using the polar representation of the curves that are the boundaries of the horizontal sections. In the polar representation the curve is represented by radii which are measured from a central point as a function of the angle. However this representation is applicable only for convex (or star-like) shapes, where in any direction the radii intersect with the curve only once. In this research we would like to expand the method to be more general and to fit any simple connected close curves. Therefore, we chose to measure the distances from the center of gravity of the shape as a function of the arc length. Using the Fourier representation of the curves could reveals information about any deformation scale introduced to the curve. The Fourier coefficients indicate about the magnitude of these deformations. The first parameter is the mean radius, and it serves to set the scale (size) of the section. The third parameter, which is the first non trivial coefficient, determines the ellipse which fits the curve best. The higher order parameters provide information on deformations on smaller scales. We present a test case in which the great potential of this new tool is demonstrated. Two contemporary but traditionally-produced wheel-made jugs were scanned by a 3D scanner, which provides a complete and dense three dimensional digital representation of the studied objects, from which the horizontal sections at various heights were computed. This detailed information was used to determine various quantities that are relevant to the shape of the objects and their deviations from cylindrical symmetry. By separating the horizontal sections to the various features of the vessels (e.g. neck, base, body etc.) we could determine that each part was exposed to different pressures which introduced deformations of varying magnitudes to its final shape. For instance, the neck was deformed on relatively high scale since a handle was attached to it post the production on the wheel. Although the two jugs look very similar, we could detect differences between their deformation parameters, which testify that the potter did not use exactly the same force while producing them, as can be expected in manually productions. The ability to measure and to quantify minute changes between two similar products of the same person bare a promise to do so also when large assemblages and several production centers are involved. We propose this tool, which is basically a combination of a well-known mathematical theory together with modern technology, as an archaeological research tool, in which the technology of ceramics, its production patterns and motor habit skills could be investigated.

Perceiving Pottery: A View Using 3d Applications

Diego J. Irujo-Ruíz, M. Pilar Prieto-Martínez _ Laboratorio de Arqueoloxía da Paisaxe, Instituto de Estudos Galegos Padre Sarmiento;

Abstract: The purpose of this communication is to present an investigation project carried out into prehistoric pottery from the perspective of visual perception, using a virtual reconstruction in 3D to do so, and carrying out a visibility analysis based on the ‘socially relevant choices' involved in pottery production processes based on the tenets of Landscape Archaeology. This study is of equal interest in two areas: disclosing information and research. We will focus on the latter. As we understand pottery to be a social product that is materialised in a spatial manner, we may define its visibility conditions by ‘casting a glance' over the elements of which it is comprised. Therefore, if other elements of material culture, such as the social landscape, respond to different strategies of visibility, it is logical to believe that pottery also responds to a ‘wish for visibility' in line with the social being. This research involves casting a ‘methodological glance' (from the present) over pottery, with the aim of discovering which are the formal elements that lead to greater or null visibility in the final products. We base this research on the hypothesis that there is a social intention in the technical choices of the different stages of pottery production, and that this intention has a visual effect linked to the visibility strategies of these societies. If this is the case, then the visibility strategies may contribute towards characterising the ceramic styles of different prehistoric periods. We believe that making 3D reconstructions is a useful tool, as it allows us to rebuild pottery which in Galician contexts always appears in a highly fragmented state. This tool allows us to visualise complete objects, giving us the opportunity to contrast our hypotheses regarding their visibility. Three computer programmes were used in the process: Strata Studio 3D-Pro (for rendering in 3D), Adobe Illustrator (sections/drawings) and Adobe Photoshop (textures and photo retouching), making it possible to present a virtual reconstruction of the pottery in 3D. We offer different examples in 3D of pottery taken from sites in Galicia (in the north western Iberian Peninsula) from Late Prehistory (Early-Mid Neolithic, Late Neolithic, Early Bronze Age and Late Bronze Age), with explanations of their visual features. Pottery is a spatial representation of the society that produces it, expressing transformations in patterns of rationality. Starting out from the hypothesis that formal continuity is as important as formal changes or breaks, and that these lead to transformations in the visibility of pottery, we attempt to discover if we may use this visibility to increase our knowledge about pottery as a materialisation of the social being.

A mythological tale lived again through the virtual reality

Bruno Fabio, Crugliano Giuseppe, Fiorelli Daniela, Genovese Guglielmo, Muzzupappa Maurizio _ University of Calabria, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Abstract: The virtual reality (VR) has been already employed, with excellent outcomes, in the cultural heritage field. A virtual heritage application should not be limited to a simple walkthrough experience, but it is necessary that the users could navigate into the reconstruction of archaeological sites in an interactive way, receiving appropriate information. A further improvement is the possibility to integrate some entertainment elements in the application. So the virtual experience becomes a learning moment in which the user learns history while playing. In fact the importance of playing in the learning process is well known for psychologists and experts in education. The Edutainment approach could be the model to develop a new generation of VR applications for cultural heritage. In this way it could be possible, not only to make the virtual experiences more attractive, but also more rich of historical and cultural contents. The classical mythology presents a lot of opportunities for the knowledge of the archaeological areas through the articulation of narrative elements. The study of the evidences makes it possible to propose an interactive experience to live again the mythical stories putting them in relationship with the reconstructions of plans and structures in the archaeological sites. So the user will be able to know the genesis of a particular myth in relation to the archaeological context. Obviously, the VR and the game elements have not to compromise the accurate reconstruction of the archaeological sites, because the user needs to know what has been found in the site and what has been reconstructed with the suppositions of the archaeologists. In this paper we describe the first steps in the development of an application that would join the edutainment approach and the virtual reality technologies in the cultural heritage field. This application is inspired to an episode of the Herakle's life in which the user plays this legendary hero during his arrival at Kroton, and relives the events that drive him to make and consecrate a temple to Hera at Lakinion promontory (Capo Colonna), near the city. This approach allows us to improve the exploitation of the archaeological site of Capo Colonna, giving to the user the possibility to acquire the historical and cultural context related to the Lacinian's Heraion and the relations between the myths of Herakle and the territory of Kroton . Information about geography, history and mythology will be given to the user by the so-called “NPCs” (non-playing characters) during the game session through dialogues, while he/she is playing and moves forward into the game. Moreover, game experience will be “non-linear”: different player's choices can change the plot, so there are different ways to get to the end. The techniques employed to combine the game sequences and the learning of historical facts will be presented. And some of the problems related to the implementation of these techniques will be also described.

Virtual Heritage Reconstruction: The Old Main of Church of Curitiba , Brazil

Jose Manoel Kozan, Iara Maria Beduschi Kozan _ University of Cincinnati – CERHAS

Abstract: The virtual reconstruction of vanished heritage is now a widespread practice around the world, due to the growing capacities of digital media to replicate and facilitate the investigation of lost or inaccessible cultural sites. Each effort within this growing industry presents unique technical and interpretive challenges. The current paper describes one of these researches, presenting the process that led to the computer-model reconstruction of the Old Main Church of Curitiba, a demolished 18th Century structure once located in a city in Southern Brazil . Because there was only one single reliable image of the building, the central focus of this project concerns the documentary and interpretive sequence necessitated by this situation, involving historical research, data analysis, digital image manipulation and three-dimensional modeling. The church demolition began in 1875, and among the remaining historical data the most reliable source of its formal features is one photograph taken in 1870. This key image was submitted to a digital rectification based on the dimensions of a surviving clock, originally positioned in the front façade of the church. The procedure provided information that allowed retrieving the probable original dimensions of the vanished building, and proceeding to a virtual reconstruction and visualization. Additional interpretive support came from old paintings, drawings, maps, and analogies with similar contemporaneous buildings. The goal of the research, to determine the probable dimensions of the Old Main Church , was attained, even though it is hard to determine how precise the final results are in the absence of any substantial measured remnants of original building, and with no camera parameters or archaeological information available. Comparing the dimensions of the front façade of the church in the generated drawings with the building outline encountered in an old map, it was detected a minimal difference, even though the process to rectify the single image employed only a very small detail in the façade to provide the scale. This has demonstrated that in image rectification cases where no archaeological remains or prominent architectural elements such as windows and apertures are available, minor elements may supply the necessary geometrical data. Today, even the exact location of the church in the plaza is uncertain, as no archaeological excavations were conducted at the site. Possibly, the most relevant and yet neglected legacy of the Old Main Church still lies unexplored. The plaza where the church was located remains an important and busy area in downtown Curitiba , and the church's foundations still may lie underground.

Remote Research through the Modeling and Reconstruction of a Medieval Monastery Site in Languedoc

Elizabeth Riorden, Bradley French, Emily Hatch _ University of Cincinnati

See PowerPoint


The Benedictine Abbey of St. Pierre of Psalmodi (known as Psalmodi), near the walled city of Aigues-Mortes , has lain in ruinous condition since the early 18th century. Like many similar sites, archaeologists and historians are able to glean many facts from digging and research, yet their ultimate understanding of the site has been hindered by how difficult it is to visualize the many phases. The current project aims at providing the researchers (and eventually the public) with better visualization tools: a vectorized state plan with an elaborate layer structure, a 3D state model, and a simple massing model of the six major phases of the site. This phase was completed in September 2004. The data is shared by the researchers (scattered over the US and Europe ) via the web and also via direct sharing of the larger files. The prior computer graphic work at Psalmodi, which was discovered and first excavated by a small British/American team in the 1960s, took place in 1996. In that campaign the site was re-surveyed with an electronic theodolite and the first CAD plan (showing topography and the outline of historic features) was assembled by the primary author. However, no three-dimensional models were constructed. The 2004 campaign, which is the subject of this paper, has addressed that lack of three-dimensional information. It is our hope that the project might serve as a template for other similar archaeological sites which are in the process of synthesizing their data. The platforms used (micro-computers) and software (Auto CAD, 3d Studio Max, Macromedia Flash etc.) are intended to be widely available; the modelers had software and architectural expertise but no especial archaeological knowledge. In this way the project can be a prototype for the small or medium sized excavation's research team. Both the budget ($12,000) and the amount of time needed (2.5 months- 1 director, two assistants) were reasonable alternatives for such excavations- with the reward that the researchers have a greatly facilitated understanding of their subject.

Reconstructing New Zealand 's Heritage: Laser Scanning the Ruins of the Warkworth Cement Works

Daniel McCurdy, Russell Gibb _ Geometria Ltd.

Abstract: The Wilson Portland Cement Works, in Warkworth , New Zealand has presented a recording challenge for archaeologists since its abandonment in 1929. The site of the first Portland Cement Works in the Southern Hemisphere was once used for demolitions practice during the Second World War, and now lies partially in rubble. It is a listed heritage site carrying the highest heritage rating afforded to sites in New Zealand . The site includes several buildings, foundations and other structures in various states of decay, spread over a large area. No historical plans of the site or details of its construction phases exist, and traditional surveying methods have been largely unsuccessful in recording the remnant features of the site. Laser scanning provided a surveying solution but numerous challenges arose. The focus of the project was to produce detailed plans to enable engineers and architects facilitate the restoration and structural reinforcement of the ruins to a degree that they could be stabilised and re-opened to the public. Secondary to this primary goal was the desire to create an efficient workable three dimensional model of the site that could be used for virtual preservation and presentation of the site. The data collected would also allow in-depth analysis of the site. Of particular interest to archaeologists was the chronology of the site's construction, as different building phases demonstrated distinct construction technologies. A Cyrax 2500 Laser Scanner was used to record the site in high definition. Unlike much simpler archaeological sites, the Cement Works posed many practical scanning problems due to it being an unstable ruin with numerous inaccessible and confined areas. Furthermore, as a consequence of the site having been in ruins for 80 years, vegetation had overtaken parts of the site. As the site is a popular picnic destination and is a protected historic site, any modification to its aesthetic was completely out of the question. One of the most impressive features of the site is a tree that has partially demolished a lime firing furnace. Scanning and modelling a massive organic heritage structure that co-existed with anthropogenic structures was a situation that was new to the archaeologists involved, and posed many problems further down the modelling pipeline. At the completion of the scanning survey hundreds of point clouds of three dimensional data were collected, capturing nearly the entire site at a resolution of at least 1cm. The dataset presented problems in its conversion to a useful and efficient model for the purposes of visualization and analysis. Furthermore, the resulting data was required to be easily accessible to conservation architects and engineers, as well as the general public. This meant the dataset had to be reduced to a size and format that could be manipulated by people with a variety of levels of computing power and expertise. As a result, a variety of different conclusions to the project were presented, depending on the requirements of the various parties involved. This paper is a study of the capacity of modern laser scanning technology to capture and manipulate large amounts of data, and the challenges and limitations of manipulating such a unique data set. We discuss the recording and modelling process and present preliminary 3D reconstructions of the site.

5 - Seeing through walls: 3D “Building” Reconstruction


Vilars AR Project. Testing the Augmented Reality paradigm in an archaeological site

Ares Vidal, Enric Tartera, Natàlia Alonso, Carles Aguiló, Emili Junyent, Jesús Lorés _ Grup d'Investigació Prehistòrica, Universitat de Lleida

Abstract: In this paper we will present our interdisciplinary research of new paradigms in Human Computer - Interaction and cultural heritage applied to an archaeological site, els Vilars. Particularly our interest is in how to apply augmented reality systems to provide location and position dependent multimedia content to the visitors of an archaeological site. Els Vilars is an archaeological site inhabited during First Iron Age and Iberian Period (from 750 to 325 BC) and it is placed in the northeast of Iberian Peninsula . As a monumental site, it has been declared Bé Cultural d'Interés Nacional (legally, the highest monumental category of Spanish State ) and it is supported by a Development Plan, which its finallity is to put the site in value and arrange it to the visitors. In this sense, the presentation of the site has to take into account the new technologies. That is the reason why the Grup d'Investigació Prehistòrica (GIP) and the Research Group in Human Computer Interaction (GRIHO), both come from University of Lleida (UdL), work together on the elaboration of VILARS AR PROJECT. This project pretends to create an augmented reality (AR) system applied to the site visit, where the visitors will be able to observe virtual reconstructions from different visitable points with a portable visualization device (a tablet pc) and also to interact with other offered multimedia contents (image, text and audio). All this contents characterize, put in context and “augment “ the visible reality. At first, our main motivation was to generate an information mechanism for the visitors which could answer to the most possible questions, covering any user curiosity. In this sense, the device had to offer to the visitors the possibility of deciding what they want or what they do not want to know. Moreover, the users plurality has been also taken into account, so that the device has to be adapted to the users according to their knowledge, capabilities and interests. At present the project is in its second execution phase. In the first phase we had established the visitors itinerary, the different points of interest, the subjects to develop, the different kinds of potential public and the usability aspects. A first prototype had been created using a tablet pc as hardware support, choosing Macromedia Director for the software, making contents oriented to two different types of public and preparing all in two languages. Afterwards, this prototype was evaluated with real public. Starting from these evaluations we have initiated a second execution phase taking into account the strong and the weak points and proposing future strategies. Nowadays, we have established changes concerning software, design and information architecture. For example, in case of information architecture we have established a new structure with more interactive concepts at the expense of specialized contents. Nevertheless, the most important change is that we have raised again the finality of the project. So then, we pretend to use the AR device as a way to discover the archaeological site and enjoy an interactive visit full of virtual and interactive resources, that is, as an initiator to archaeological heritage and not as a transmitting tool of all kind of specialized information. In this paper we will show all the creation process, the methodology based in the user centred design, the first results, the conclusions derived from them and the new results succeeded in this second execution phase.

Recreating a prehistoric village: from the Epipaleolithic to the Iron Age Session

D. Gutierrez, E. Sobreviela, O. Anson, F. Gomez, F. Seron _ Light Simulation Lab

Abstract: This paper describes the different stages in the virtual reconstruction of a prehistoric village, known as Cabezo de la Cruz , near Zaragoza, in Spain . The discovery of the remains of the village was soon endangered by plans of a new highway, which is to pass right across the archaeological site. Given the site's extraordinary scientific value, and its importance as cultural heritage, it was decided to virtually recreate the three constructive phases found in the site (epipaleolithic, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age). This is a multidisciplinar effort, spanning very different professions, which required fluid communication protocols between archaeologists, paleontologists and computer scientists. The latter were in charge of creating the digital worlds that would help visualize all the data gathered in the excavation. Special attention was given to the final appearance of the images: to be truthful to the original village and in order not to mislead the spectators, photorealism was chosen over real time interaction. Virtual reconstructions limited by real-time constraints usually do not mimic reality as it was, but an oversimplification of reality (the actual level of simplifications governed by the available hardware). Computers need to calculate images fast, to achieve the desired frame rate; to do so, polygon counts in the models go down, simplifying geometry, and lighting calculations use smart cheats that have nothing do to with the actual interaction between light and matter. The result is that no real data is obtained, when in reality archaeologists need to have reliable data if they are to interpret their discoveries. In this work, lighting calculations are performed with true sunlight simulations, including its exact position any given day. Firelight has been accurately simulated as well, to better capture the sensation of being inside one of the buildings at night. Before the images are displayed, the raw data obtained from the simulation is fed to a Human Visual System model, which mimics the way the human eye and brain interpret it, thus increasing realism. It is base on the fact that the human eye is actually good at perceiving contrasts, but fails at obtaining precise measures of luminance values. Color perception also changes depending on a number of conditions. As well as a detailed description of the geometry, photorealistic textures and a physically-based lighting simulation, the terrain, trees and plants that surrounded the village have also been recreated in detail. A great wild fire between the Bronze and the Iron ages radically changed the surroundings of the village, and the archaeologists wanted to see those changes in the virtual reconstruction. The resulting images have been obtained in stereoscopic pairs, to be seen in immersive environments using active or passive polarized glasses.

An interactive 3D reconstruction of a funeral in Andriuolo's Necropolis in Paestum

Roberto Andreoli, Rosario De Chiara, Ugo Erra, Vittorio Scarano, Angela Pontrandolfo, Luigia Rizzo, Alfonso Santoriello _ Dipartimento di Informatica ed Appl. Universita' di Salerno

Abstract: Introduction In this paper we describe an interactive 3D reconstruction of a funeral cortege in the Andriuolo necropolis in Paestum . The reconstruction is based on ordinary videogame engines that are used to provide both a highly realistic environment on ordinary hardware as well as an entertaining and informative interactive tool to explore archaeological research to a wide audience. 2 Poseidonia-Paestum Poseidonia-Paestum is situated in the middle of the Gulf of Salerno , the ancient sinus paestanus. The archaeological data allow us to date its foundation back to the end of the 7th century b.C. by settlers coming from the town of Sibari . The urban space was protected by strong fortifications developing itself, according to different building stages, from the Greek time to the colony established by the Roman law, within an area of 4.5 km . Beyond it there was the territory (the chora) which in Greek times was an integral part of the town. Outside the walls the urban necropolises were situated. The study of the large number of graves discovered until now, allows us to observe a variety of changes from the end of the 5th century b.C., a period when Posidonia was occupied by the Lucans, a people of Italic origin. The Lucan domination, which probably produced the change of the name of the town, from Poseidonia to Paestum , did not change the distribution of the urban paces, but it produced a radical change in the funerary ritual. The funerary objects furnishing tombs during Greek times were limited in number, which showed the will of not emphasizing social class differences within the population of the town. During Lucan times the objects accompanying the dead multiply in number and become signs emphasizing sex, age and social hierarchy differences. In this period tombs are mostly “case” shaped and made of local tufa. Each tomb was probably meant for only one burial. The most known necropolises show that burials are distributed according to nucleuses around a main tomb, as to repeat in the “town of the dead” a kind of family organization. Each group is materially distinguished from the other by free larger or smaller spaces. Some tombs distinguish themselves for the paintings decorating the walls. This is another sign of distinction and wealth: out of one thousand tombs, 80 are painted and out of them 14 are like “rooms”. About fifty painted tombs come from the urban necropolises. Particularly the necropolis in the territory of Andriuolo , situated north to the old inhabited area, has been selected as experimental sample for the applications presented in this work. The largest number of painted tombs comes from this funerary area. The funerary paintings of Paestum express in their images the values and ideals of the Lucan ruling groups in a period ranging between the end of the 5th to the beginning of the 3rd century b.C. The paintings show a technique similar to that of frescoes, carried out with the help of a thin layer of lime on calcareous rock. The surface of rock to be painted was divided into sections in which the painting outlines were prepared. They are generally decorated with geometric designs or by figure scenes. Among these, two themes of frequently occurring iconographies, related to men's and women's world can be distinguished. The typical scene of men's tombs is the return of the warrior represented while riding in the suit of armour of the Italic warriors and welcomed by a woman's figure taking with her ritual objects. This kind of iconography aims at celebrating the military value of the dead. Women, on the contrary, are represented on their deathbed, surrounded by mourning women, while the dead woman is exposed (prothesis) to visitors, or she is busy with her housework, such as weaving. To these scenes, which are usually represented on the short slabs situated behind the head of the dead, on the longer sides of the tomb, representations taken from funeral games, particularly bigae races, fighting or boxing matches and hunting scenes, correspond. Many paintings represent the funeral cortege, in which many figures accompanying the dead woman to the burial place, take part. The cortege is opened by the flute player followed by participants taking in their hands or on little tables, pomegranates, eggs, bread and little vases containing perfumed oils. Then figures of young boys or children follow, who can be considered as serves or children of the dead woman. The procession scene is enriched by the presence of mourning women showing by gestures, their desperation. Sometimes animals to be sacrificed and a man taking the sacrifice axe are present. The first discoveries of funerary paintings date back to the beginning of the 19th century and occur still today, with casual findings and systematic explorations starting from the end of the Sixties of the last century. At present the whole corpus of the painted tombs is preserved in the National Archaelogical Museum in Paestum . Only some funerary paintings and a few objects furnishing the tombs are exhibited in the Museum, and that makes it not possible to fully set them in their original context. 3 3D reconstruction guidelines The 3D reconstruction is developed by using a state-of-the-art 3D engine directly from the videogame technology, Source engine from Valve, used for HalfLife 2 and recently released. The engine was recently released and allows to build virtual worlds (known as “mod” (as in modifications)) where the user is not only visiting a 3D virtual environment but he/she can also interact in first person with the synthesized characters that are acting in the scene. Source is a first-person-shooter games engine that provides a photo-realistic 3d environment that enable a quick and effective development by a WYSIWYG World editor (Valve Hammer Editor). Source also provide Artificial Intelligence tools, such as Pathfinding and Decision Making algorithms that allow non-player characters (artificial representation of humans, animals, objects) to react with users' actions and with the other non-playing characters. The non-player characters can be also designed realistically since the engine provides skeletal animation, morphing, facial animation and animation blending so that the interaction is extremely shapable according to the designer needs. In a sense, the main difference, from user's point of view, with traditional 3D scenes is simply that he/she is a character in a scene and plays with the environment and the characters. Of course, from the designer point of view, this environment offers exciting new avenues for providing content and information that are hidden and naturally provided to the user, e.g., in the form of a speech that is delivered directly from a character to the user if he/she approaches the character close enough. 3.1 The screenplay Given the characteristics of interaction provided from Source engine, our design was created in the format of a traditional screenplay for a movie. In this context, we described, first, the scenario but also the characters, their dresses, the way they proceed in the funeral rite and how they can interact with the user/spectator. The funeral takes place in early morning of a cloudy spring day in the fifth century b.C. The funeral procession comes from the town and the temples, that are seen in the background toward south. The field where the procession enters is delimited by thick vegetation that only partially discloses glimpses of the sea and surrounding hills. The composition of the cortege follows the indications found in the painted tombs, assembled together for completeness. After the leading flute player, the participants follow, bringing food and small vases (for perfumed oils). Young boys follow in with mourning women and animals to be sacrificed (an axe) led by a man. While these characters proceed, the user can walk around the cortege and interact briefly with each one, receiving some information on the nature of the dead person, or simple laments from the mourning women. The procession, then, proceeds to the burial site, where the painted tomb is already been placed. The burial is done by two men that take the body and place it the tomb with some ropes that are later pulled. Then, some vases are placed in the tomb and the tomb is closed. At the end, the procession moves back to town. The user can interact with the characters, that can follow his/her movements in the procession and react with a plausible response to a series of repeated interactions with the user.

Virtualizing Ancient Rome : A new hybrid digital model of late-antique Rome

Bernard Frischer _ Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia

Gabriele Guidi _Dept. INDACO, Politecnico di Milano

Abstract: Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the “Plastico di Roma antica,” a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter ). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this “contradiction” and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as “Rome Reborn,” of which the present acquisition is an important component.

The Flavian Amphitheater (Colosseum) in Rome : An Excellent People-Mover?

Diego Gutierrez, Francisco Seron, Bernard Frischer, Dean Abernathy _ University of Zaragoza & Light Simulation Lab, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia

Abstract: The Flavian Amphitheater (known as the "Colosseum" only after the year 1000 A .D.) was built in Rome in the 70s A.D. by the Emperor Vespasian, who dedicated the partially-built complex in 79, the year of his death. The main purpose of the Colosseum was to house the gladiatorial games which had come to be a typical feature of Roman culture in the imperial capital and throughout the Roman world. Other events recorded here include mock naval battles, animal hunts, and the execution of criminals. Its seating capacity has been estimated at between 40,000 and 73,000 spectators. A commonplace in modern scholarship about the amphitheater is that it was an excellent people-mover. Each spectator arrived at the games with a ticket denoting his seat, and even ticketholders seated in the far reaches of the cavea could supposedly reach their place rather quickly (G. Lugli 1969: 19 ["(the architect) was also concerned with providing rapid access for the vast numbers of the public...Study of the overall design of the building shows how completely he succeeded"]; L. Abbondanza 1997: 12 ["the complex system of ramps and passageways enabled the crowd to flow in and out with ease...."]; R. Auguet 1972: Since the late 1990s, the Cultural Virtual Reality Laboratory (CVRLab; has been working on a digital model of the Flavian Amphitheater with the help of an advisory committee that includes Heinz Beste (German Archaeological Institute, Rome), Mark Wilson-Jones (University of Bath), and Lynn Lancaster (Ohio University). During the course of creating the model, CVRLab Associate Director Dean Abernathy observed a possible bottleneck in the circulation pattern affecting the mass of spectators. The purpose of the present project is to develop a formal quantitative model to test Abernathy's thesis that, for most spectators, passage from the entrance to the seat in the upper levels of the amphitheater was slower and harder than previous scholarship leads one to expect. To achieve the desired goal, the Advanced Computer Graphics Group of the University of Zaragoza, Spain, along with the Spanish-based company Light Simulation Lab, are working on the development of a 3D digital crowd simulation. Approximately fifty thousand synthetic actors, governed by Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms, will enter the Colosseum through the right door, find their way around and walk to their pre-assigned seats. The AI is based on state machines, under a perception-reasoning-action scheme. Non-deterministic behaviors can be added to a few random actors, or the characteristics of a given percentage can be altered to observe the effect on the crowd movement. Given the accuracy of the Colosseum model and the AI rules, the possible bottlenecks in the structure should be identified, shedding some light on the value of the building as a people-mover. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbondanza, L., 1997. The Valley of the Colosseum, Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma, trans. E. Steinberg (Electa, Milan ) Auguet, R., 1972. Cruelty and Civilization: The Roman Games (George Unwin, London ).

On-A-Slant Virtual Village: Constructing a 3D Stereo Imaging

Aaron Bergstrom, Jeffrey T. Calrk, Douglas G. Zinder, Richard Frovarp, Dan Hertz, Brian M. Slator, Ryan White _ Archaeology Technologies Laboratory, North Dakota State University

Abstract: This paper summarizes the technology used by the North Dakota State University (NDSU) Archaeology Technologies Laboratory (ATL) to build a three-dimensional (3D) stereographic exhibit for public entertainment and education. The exhibit is based on archaeological, historical and ethnographic records of the On-A-Slant Virtual Village , a Native American village site situated on the grounds of Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park in central North Dakota , USA . The village was occupied between the 15 th and late 18 th Centuries by the Mandan Indian tribe and was abandoned in 1781 following a devastating smallpox epidemic. The construction and implementation of this exhibit required the use of a variety of technologies. The village reconstruction was generated using Alias' Maya Unlimited 3D authoring software. We used a Minolta Vivid 900 3D non-contact laser digitiser to generate 3D models of artefacts recovered from the On-A-Slant site. Four of these models were then embedded within a 3D reconstruction of the village. The simulation was also populated with avatars depicting Mandan Indians engaged in a variety of daily tasks, as well as animated dogs and horses. Using Maya's rendering software and three distributed rendering networks consisting of 182 computer processors, we created over 30 000 individual TIFF images. The entire rendering process lasted 3 weeks and ran 24 hours a day. These images were then cropped using the automated batch tools of Adobe Photoshop to create over 30 000 stereo projection frames – 15 000 for the left eye and 15 000 for the right eye. The stereo projection frames were then imported into Adobe Premier video editing software where a surround sound audio track was added that incorporates narrator voiceovers and ambient environment sounds.

A video file was exported from Premier for both the left and right eyes. Using Adobe Encore DVD production software and equal-length exported video files; separate DVDs were created for each eye. For the exhibit, these DVDs are played back on two separate synchronized DVD players, each of which is connected to a separate projector of the VizEverywhere dual, polarized-light projection system. When viewed through polarized light glasses, the video display appears as an immersive stereo image. The use of 3D stereo imaging further heightens the realism for the audience by creating an immersive as-though-you-were-there experience. The end product of this project is a high-detail, 12 minutes stereo image documentary that portrays the daily life of the Mandan people in the year 1776.

6 - Public eyes: Museums and Public Archaeology


IMRAR_beta Approaching to the Development of an International Museum : Rock Art Research Process and Complexity

GIPRI-Colombia, Miguel Angel Albadán Text and Design

Abstract: This Project begins as a response to the initiative of the Indigenous Rock Art Research Group (GIPRI), who was trying to develop a digital Rock Art museum that could be used as an international divulgation tool to reach specialized public around the world. This tool is intended as a single system that concentrates several data, as rock art research history, archeological findings, aesthetic topologies and ethno-historical studies, as well as the geographical context and the conservational studies being hold for every rock art zone. By this we are building a vast international data base, one that, once it is visualized, allows the user to make thematic links and specialized searches or to find out geographical relations for each zone as well as for a specific rock or an associated event. The Museum also seeks to denounce a matter so long isolated by the Government and the Public University . We believe that once presented like this, the international community could have a more accurate idea of the magnitude of the rock art zones and the needs on this research field, as well as the archeological and anthropological ones throughout the nation. The Museum also faces the discussion about “What means patrimony?” and unveils that it is indeed the thoughts and materials produced by the researches and not the object itself.

Developing an electronic thesaurus of terms for Byzantine Icons in the framework of a project, focused in the creation of a virtual Museum

Dionysios Mourelatos, Andreas Andreou, Theodora Patsalou, Drakoulis Martakos _ Department of Archaeology and Department of Informatics, University of Athens

Abstract: This research takes place in the framework of the project “I-BYZANTINE - Use of Advanced Applications of Hypermedia Systems for the Benefit of Services of Individualized Navigation and Learning in Virtual Byzantine Museum Environments”, funded by the General Secretary of Research and Technology of the Minister of Development ( Greece ). It is realized by the University of Athens under the supervision of Associate Professor D.Martakos (Dep. of Informatics) and Professors M.Panayotidi and S.Kalopissi-Verti (Dep.of Archaeology) with the collaboration of the Foundation of Mount Sinai ( Athens , Greece ). This research project intends to create a virtual museum for Byzantine Antiquities, relating to Saint Catherine's Monastery in South Sinai ( Egypt ). More specifically, its thematical direction focuses on “Cultural and economic routes in South Sinai during Byzantine period (4th-15th c.)”. The researchers, who take part in this project are: Dimitrios Charitos, Theodora Patsalou, Andreas Andreou, Ioannis Kontaxakis (Department of Informatics) and Nikolaos Fyssas, Georgia Foukaneli, Charikleia Diamanti and Dionysios Mourelatos (Department of Archaeology). This paper focuses on an electronic thesaurus of terms concerning Mr D. Mourelatos' PhD thesis, entitled: Icon, its placement and function in the Byzantine society. In general, the project aims to materialize a system, which will provide the possibility to a widely distributed public to access items from South Sinai , especially from Saint Catherine's Monastery, which is located in a long distance area. The main ambition of this project is the development of a system based on hypermedia and distributed systems technologies, which will: · Ensure the preservation of historical items, · Record related information, · Digitize them, and finally · Enable access to a widely distributed public of this kind of cultural heritage. The System Architecture is based on a three level model consisting of the Presentation Layer, the Business Layer and the Data Layer. Such architecture is widely used for the development of Internet applications. The Data Layer concerns the data, the database and the handling of data objects. The Business Layer is the middle layer of the application and is comprised of business objects / components and application functions. The Business Layer is used in order to access all the necessary data of the Data Layer. The Presentation Layer enables interaction of the final user with the application through a Web Browser. This layer is responsible for creating the final interface, which is used for the submission of the requests of the final users. The system's Information Model consists of: · The User Profile Information Model · The Tour Information Model · The Documentation Information Model · The Multimedia Content & Classification Information Model The User Profile Information Model is responsible for the preservation of the information, relating to the user's profile. This profile is created by the system during the procedure of the subscription of the user and is enhanced based on the choices made by the user during his navigation. The Tour Information Model is responsible for the preservation of information relating to the structure and content of a virtual tour. The Documentation Information Model is responsible for the electronic filing of notes relating to archeological items. The Multimedia Content & Classification Information Model is responsible for the preservation of data, relating to the hypermedia information and its taxonomy. It contains many different kinds of meta-data such as: • Audio meta-data • Streaming Video meta-data • Image meta-data • Text meta-data • Virtual Reality Environment (QTVR) • Digitized historical information This information concerns: · Locations, people and itineraries during this period (4th-15th centuries) in South Sinai, mentioned in historical sources. Archaeologist Georgia Foukaneli is responsible for this field. · Ceramics found in the area of South Sinai and especially in two sites, excavated by the University of Athens . Archaeologist Charikleia Diamanti is responsible for this field. · Works of painting, especially Byzantine icons located at Saint Catherine's Monastery in South Sinai , which is considered to be the largest deposit of icons in the world. Archaeologist Dionysios Mourelatos is responsible for this field. In this framework this paper focuses especially on the organisation of terms concerning religious medieval paintings. Based on taxonomy of Semantic Relations (after Mark H.Chignell, J.Felix Valdez & John A.Waterworth, Knowledge Engineering for Hypermedia in John Waterworth's Multimedia technology and applications, Chichester , 1991. See also, Chaffin R. and Herrman D.J., The similarity and diversity of semantic relations. Memory and Cognition, 12, 134-141, 1984), a classification of terms, relating to religious icons (their iconographical theme, their style etc.) will be undertaken.

TNT: The Neanderthal Tools

G.-C. Weniger, J. Döllner, R. Macchiarelli, M. Mandel, P. Mayer, J. Radovcic, P. Semal _ Neanderthal Museum

Abstract: TNT is a combined research and demonstration project within the EU “Digicult” program, which facilitates research and preservation work on Europe 's artistic and cultural treasures using modern technology. The project was initiated by the Neanderthal Museum and ART+COM, a company for interactive media-technology in Berlin . Three further scientific institutions and three further technical partners are involved in the project. Artefacts, human fossils and related data from Neanderthal sites are not only being uniformly catalogued for the databank, but also visualized through CT and 3-D surface scans. Moreover tools are developed for a collaborative internet platform called NESPOS which, through visual simulation methods, enables graphic reproduction, measurement and examination of fossils and archaeological objects. The visual simulation engine developed within the project is called VISICORE. With VISICORE researchers will have the chance to easily exchange content in 3D format via the Internet, to compare results and artefacts with each other, to test theories, to combine results world wide and to reduce direct access to the fragile fossils. Within the TNT-framework the public ArchChannel will be installed by NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Germany . The ArchChannel is planned as a popular science portal which reflects the current state of the European research: Every user is invited to discover the world of the Neanderthals through the internet. From the end of 2005 onwards, the website will not only supply extensive information but also provide numerous interactive modules enabling the user to make an entertaining journey through time to the world of the Neanderthals. The creation of a scientific cross-border data pool and the integration of new imaging processes, in combination with a website for the general public, make TNT unique .

Choice and inspiration: content for audio and multimedia guiding systems

Katerina Nikolaidou, Museum of Byzantine Culture Archontia Polyzoudi, 10th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities

Abstract: Audio and multimedia guiding systems, as many other technological applications, can be seen not as mere information transmitters, but as a communication medium that has the power to affect one's perception of the surrounding reality. Thus, they can contribute significantly to the overall experience of a visit in a museum or site of cultural significance. But what do we, on behalf of a cultural institution, want visitors to learn by using them? Not having quite replaced the face-to-face guiding, which remains addressed to group visits, the guiding systems, with the introduction of PDAs particularly, gain ground and gradually change their aims and content in order not just to describe artefacts anymore but to provide contextual information and initiative for learning and enjoyment. We will first attempt to define the relation between the medium and its content by evaluating the pros and cons of face-to face, audio and multimedia guided visits, with the help of communications and social theory and through our personal experience in the concept, development and evaluation of relevant applications. We will then focus on discussing the variety of content in guiding systems according to case, in archaeological, historical and open air museums, and in both permanent and temporary exhibitions. Indeed, the very same hardware may lead to a wide range of content, according to different exhibitional and thematic requirements and depending upon the creators' choice and inspiration. We will use as case studies our own relevant work: the contextual audio guides in the temporary exhibition “Byzantine Hours: Everyday life in Byzantium”, the flexible audio or multimedia guidance in the permanent exhibition of the Museum of Byzantine Culture, the multimedia exhibitional supplement of the Museum of the city of Thessaloniki, the acoustic literary texts suggested for the forthcoming re-exhibition of the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle and the integrated multimedia guiding system suggested in the site and museum of Ouranoupolis and the historical-folklore “Argentis” Collection in the museum of Chios.

The Israel Antiquities Authority Website – Bridging the Past with the Future

Liat Ayzencot, Yuval Baruch _ Israel Antiquities Authority

Abstract: The IAA's new website, launched on July 13th 2004 during the Archaeology day held at the Knesset (Israeli Parliament), represents a large, diverse, serious and uncompromising archaeological work conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority – its archaeologists, preservers, lab people, curators, publishers, guides in the archaeological centers, IT people and the administration team – everybody working for achieving one goal – preservation of the antiquities for ourselves and for future generations. The website is bi-lingual (Hebrew and English) database driven, meaning it is updated regularly with new content. The website holds information about the IAA's diverse range of activities: excavations and new findings, preservation and development works, research and publications. The content is brought to the public in a user friendly way which allows both scholars and the general public to find out information. The IAA uses the website in order to communicate and be in touch with the general public –be updated with the newest excavations being held all over the country by means of a dynamic map (otherwise publicized only years after the actual excavation), read the latest news about new findings, buy the IAA's publications online, order educational activities for schools and families through the website, receive the most adequate information about the archaeological annexes of national and municipal outline plans in which the Israel Antiquities Authority were involved in all the designing and planning stages , report online about antiquities robbery, read the conservation files from the IAA's archives,….

Archis2: the Dutch Archaeological Heritage accessible on the Internet

P.M. Boekenoogen; A. Sloos _ Dutch National Service for Archaeological Heritage (ROB)

Abstract: Archis2: the Dutch Archaeological Heritage accessible on the Internet Introduction At the Dutch (i.e. Netherlands) National Service for Archaeological Heritage (ROB) the first generation of an information architecture and registration system for the Dutch archaeological heritage (SMR : the regional Sites and Monuments Record) was in use in the period 1992-2002. It was called Archis: ARCHaeological Information System. Due to the implementation of the Malta agreement in Dutch legislation and the rapid changes in the Dutch archaeological establishment, this system had become dated. For several reasons it was not possible to adapt the system to meet today's requirements. It therefore was necessary to design a new architecture, what has become the second generation of Archis, with the name of Archis2. The first version was launched in 2002, and since then several improvements and extensions have been made. The architecture of Archis2 has three main stating points: 1. Access to information independent of time and place 2. Registration of information at the information source 3. Differential access to information Points 1 and 2 indicate a high proportion of internet technology, point 3 is the basis of a three layer model. To provide the archaeological heritage management professionals with information, the so called expert information layer has been designed: this is Archis2. Through this layer one can get access to the scientific layer. On this level scanned archives are digitally consultable in a documentation system. On a higher, more general level information is available to the general public. For this purpose we have developed a webportal which gives access to several websites on archaeological subjects. The portal and websites together comprise this general public layer. Architecture: Archis2 is fully web based, powered by Java, OpenGIS compliant and has a Windows look and feel. The data is stored in an Oracle database with a spatial component (version Oracle 10G). It can be seen as a Geographic Information System (GIS). Both administrative and spatial information are linked together, and can be seen by the user on map layers. With a webbrowser Archis2 is available on the world wide web for the authorized user (client). Some little applets (java programs) are automatically downloaded at the client site. The requests from the user are sent (in xml), via the webserver (OpenGIS compliant), to the applicationserver. The applicationserver (with Mapextreme Java edition) then sends the request to the Oracle 10G database. Finally the result of the query is sent back from the application server to the client (in xml/gml language). Working with Archis2: To make use of the application the user needs a username and a password to logon. After entering the username and password, the Archis2 application presents itself. The user can open different functions, each representing specific tables of information. These includes research reports (ca. 9.000), archaeological observations (ca. 60.000), archaeological complexes (ca. 17.000), archaeological monuments (ca. 13.000 of which 1800 are protected by law) and more. There is also a special map function: for each function there is a separate map layer available. There are special map layers for orientation and research as topographic maps, land use maps, and soil maps of the Netherlands . The user can open one or more map layers, zoom and pan and even change colours of maps. One can make queries on the database, both administrative and spatial. The query result can be printed in a report or on a map. If the user is authorized he/she can insert, modify or delete information from the database. For example a spatial contour (shape) of an archaeological monument can be inserted or modified. This is all effectuated directly in the Oracle database. Specific draw tools for the spatial information are available in the application. Our aim on this CAA2005 conference, is to show Archis2 real time on the internet. In short the possibilities of the application will be shown to the audience. Authors and presented by: mr. P.M. Boekenoogen and mr. A. Sloos Contact: National Service for Archaeological Heritage (ROB) POB 1600, 3800 BP Amersfoort The Netherlands General website of our Service:

7 - Insite: Inter-site Analysis


The lithic industry of the Early Neolithic at Uzzo Cave ( Trapani , Sicily ) A landscape perspective on the operational chains and the raw material availability.

Carmine Collina, Rosalía Gallotti _ University of Rome " La Sapienza " Dipartimento di scienze storiche, Archeologiche e antropologiche dell'antichità

Abstract: Uzzo Cave, located in the eastern side of San Vito lo Capo promontory (Trapani, Sicily), is one of the most important sites for the understanding of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition process not only in Southern Italy, but also in the Western Mediterranean Basin. A long sequence of archaeological levels attests the human presence during the final phases of the Upper Palaeolithic , the Mesolithic and the Neolithic periods. The systematic excavations of the cave carried out since the second half of the seventies until the first half of the eighties, put to light at least two phases of the Mesolithic frequentation as well as different Early and Middle Neolithic horizons. Palaeoeconomic studies, dealing with the organisation of the subsistence strategies during the different periods, stressed the capacity of the social groups to perform complex patterns of economic activities. Gradual processes of intensification and diversification of the alimentary strategies mark the beginnings of the Early Neolithic horizons. In this period, the social groups adopt an economic model based on the integration of food resources available in the surroundings with food resources introduced from outside. In the general frame of the studies on the dynamics of the transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic and on the neolithisation process in Southern Italy, the focus on chronological and typological aspects of material culture not only disregarded the role of the lithic industry, but also ignored some technological concepts as the "structures" of a lithic assemblages and the methods of "débitage". Moreover the acquisition, management and circulation of lithic raw materials have also been overlooked. Starting from these considerations, we choose to utilise the concept of the operational chain. In this point of view, the petrographic and technological data derived from the analysis of the lithic industry of the Neolithic levels of Uzzo Cave are set in a landscape perspective of management and control of raw material sources, both in primary and secondary place. The purpose is to identify a management model of both technical behaviours and technological strategies. These last are intended as the combination of all the activities carried out since the acquisition of raw material until the abandon of the lithic products considering the effect produced by the same activities in terms of landscape behaviours, raw materials availability and acquisition modalities. At Uzzo Cave , the petrographic analysis allowed to identify several different groups of flints through a systematic observation of both macroscopic and microscopic features. The link with the technological data, essentially derived from the observation of the technological processes, the definition of the débitage products and the adoption of a typology based also on technological criteria, allowed to determine the methods and the flaking techniques utilised and, especially, the structure of the lithic system. A cartographic base related to the topographic and geological aspects, as well as to the archaeological data, of the promontory of San Vito lo Capo has been also implemented into a GIS application, with the aim to organise and eventually integrate the landscape variables concerned.

The GIS application to the spatial data organisation of the necropolis of Poseidonia-Paestum

Alfonso Santoriello, Francesco Uliano Scelza, Rosalia Gallotti, Roberto Bove, Luigia Sirangelo _ Centro Regionale di Competenza INNOVA, Dipartimento di Berni Culturali, Universitá di Salermo

Abstract: This paper concerns about the spatial organization and the thematic management of the Poseidonia and Paestum 's urban funeral areas, with a special focus on the northern edge of the city. The so called “urban necropolis” are situated in the northern and southern part of the built up area. The burial areas of the Poseidonia and Paestum 's citizens took place in these spaces since the time of Sibaritians' foundation (about 600 B.C.) and continues until the roman colonization (273 B.C.). The wide archaeological heritage, investigated since the beginning of XIX century, had been studied using different research methodologies. These studies led to several inhomogeneous documents. First of all, we have to notice the absence of a general topographical map concerning the exact localization of each grave. Several burial groups don't have a cartographical or topographical documentation at all, and often, when present, these data are uncertain: in many cases these references are reduced just to a “cadastral property information”; in other cases, such geographical documentation, extremely uncompleted, makes hard to build the exact plan metric reconstruction even of the single burial complexes. In front of this scenario, the first step for the researcher consisted in the documentary source's collection and the integration in order to construct an unique cartographical base to use as a corner stone for the Paestum 's plain. This base has been realized through the acquisition of multi-temporal and multi-scalar supports, consisted in satellite's shots (Landsat TM7, SpotImage), aerial images, both historical and actual cartographies from the Istituto Geografico Militare (the Military Geographical Institute), cadastral maps from historical and modern archives, detailed photogrammetries of Local Administration Bureaux, vectorial reconstruction of Posedonia and Paestum's ancient settlement and excavation plans from the Soprintendenza Archeologica's archive. These different data have been organized within a Geographical Information System, according to the same cartographical projection system. The burial ground's geo-localisation has been realized through survey control operations, carried out by a satellite positioning system (GPS-Glonass) with subcentrimetrical resolution. The second phase of the research aimed to the database construction in order to collect analytical records, relevant to each tomb, and to link the archaeological data to the geographical entities previously created. The target was to create an informative layer, selective and comprehensive at the same time, able to process specific thematic questions, analysis of singular funerary context and comparative examination of all the necropolis. Although many consideration would push us to considerate a bigger use of the GIS systems, there are many risks involved in the conversion of spatial data to the digital format without the correct understanding of the reproduced information's nature. The logical and physical structure of the application should be accurately planned to skip the limitations imposed by the “electronic translation (conversion)”; then, a special care, of the planning for the alpha-numerical archives application and for the programming of its vectorial graphics, should be taken. The conversion of alpha-numerical data on paper to digital format has been realized processing them in such a way as to be compatible with computerized management of the archives and to ensure, at the same time, the uniformity and the queriebility of stored information. The information levels have been described and organized, leaving aside any preliminary interpretation or explanation, in order to represent the structuring method of spatial entities and the descriptive variables associated with them as the point of departure for any following deduction process

Low Density Lithic Artefact Scatters: A Consideration of the Impact of Sampling Strategy

John Pouncett _ Institute of Archaeology , Oxford University

Abstract: Understanding of the scales at which human activity takes place is fundamental to the development of appropriate sampling strategies for the study of lithic artefact scatters. Whilst the probability of detecting lithic scatters using different sample units can be assessed statistically, archaeologists have struggled to reconcile the need for both coverage and intensity. Reductive analysis, with discussion of regional settlement patterns on the basis of the presence or chronological diagnostic artefacts, has predominated where material can only be provenanced to a particular field or locality. Where more intensive methodologies have been employed, ‘off-site' approaches have typically been employed to identify broader areas of activity through differential spatial patterning in the distribution of surface artefacts. Both approaches, however, make a differentiation between sites or activity areas and the general background scatter. They are based on the definition of a lithic scatter as a discrete, often high-density, cluster of artefacts. Lithic scatters, however, often form part of a much more extensive spread of surface material, representing the cumulative product of numerous and repeated patterns of discard. These patterns may be differentiated both spatially and quantitatively. Studies have highlighted a number of problems in identifying and interpreting low density lithic artefact scatters. First, clusters of artefacts represent locales within which debris-producing activity took place. Locales are typically task-specific. Activities may be differentiated on the basis on the range and frequency of lithic artefacts. Non-debitage producing or less intensive activities are likely to be reflected by low frequencies of artefacts. Secondly, experimental reconstruction and ethnographic observations have highlighted distinct spatial patterning in the distribution of waste from tool manufacture. Nucleated artefact distributions may indicate either individual episodes of knapping or middening activity. Depending on the sampling strategy employed, localised activity could be represented by a low density artefact or, even, missed entirely. Thirdly, lithic artefact scatters are often regarded as palimpsests of traces of past human activity, where successive episodes of deposition may be identifiable through differentiated (horizontal) spatial patterning. The identification of discrete phases of activity within a lithic scatter is reliant on the presence of chronologically diagnostic artefacts, which often represent only small percentage of the total scatter. Field walking methodologies and collection policies are typically problem-oriented and are consequently often site specific. Recent academic discourse has highlighted both intrinsic biases within surface artefact scatters and extrinsic errors introduced by sampling strategies. Previous studies have focussed on the role of surface artefact survey as a form of archaeological prospection, typically seeking to identify high density scatters that could be equated by sites. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of sampling strategy on the analysis and interpretation of low density lithic artefact scatters. For the purposes of this analysis, the location of every artefact within the lithic scatter was recorded using a total station. Total coverage was obtained in order to enable the simulation of sampling strategies and statistical techniques commonly employed in surface artefact survey. Comparison of the results of this analysis has highlighted important considerations for the analysis of low density lithic artefact scatters, including statistical artefacts introduced by different sampling strategies.

GIS applications to the analysis of excavations data in Classical Archaeology

Grazia Semeraro _ Univeristy of Lecce


Abstract: Paper overview: The aim of this essay is to present research activities developed at the Laboratory of Archeological Informatics of the University of Lecce . The Research-Unit employs competences, methodologies and packages procedures developed in the Strategic Project CNR n. 251100 "Cataloguing Methods for the Archaeological Heritage " active at the University of Lecce since 1991. The project develops along two closely correlated lines of research: the first shows the potential of the application of GIS techniques to the investigation of settlement patterns. The second has been mainly focused on the study of GIS applications to the management of archaeological excavations data (intra-site analysis). The Archaeological Computer-based System ODOS is already employed for the management of Stratigraphical Excavations data. This system guarantees integration between three different types of data: alphanumeric data, graphic information and images, using a GIS for the management of geographic and territorial data. A set of procedures aimed to spatial analysis of artefacts and ecofacts has been implemented. Within the general frame of ODOS system various case-studies are presented, in order to show different solutions to specific problems, e.g. the management of old excavations data, the study of collapsed monuments, the 3D reconstruction of the archaeological stratigraphy. Case studies: Pre-roman sites in Southern Italy, Hierapolis ( Turkey ), Tas Silg ( Malta ). Finally, a Web application will allow not only carthographical data consulting on-line but also alphanumerical data implementation for authorized users. Relevance - Data organization: it is well suited for complex informations such as that coming from excavations concerning the Classical period (graeco-roman phases). It is aimed to create a research instrument focused on the reconstruction of historical contexts. - Procedures for spatial analyses: they improve the standard quantitative functions of GIS systems. Goals - The achievement of an high level of correlation between the various levels of the archaeological research (from the territorial scale to the single artefact). - To offer a useful support to the management of complex and heterogeneous data. - To move towards a condivision and a dissemination of data through the GIS application on-line. Improvements - Procedures have been drawn up through the adaptation of the packages, which enables us to perform analysis at the scale of the detailed archaeological plans: it is possible to draft density maps of artefacts through the selection of the appropriate parameters of research (e. g. for ceramics: class, shape, type etc.). - Interpretation of data may be, in this way, improved and can be added to the more traditional descriptive statistics.

8 - Modelling our World: GIS Representation


Hierarchical multi-view representation of spatial data ; application to Corsican Neolithic tombs analysis

El Hadi Khoumeri _ SPE, UMR CNRS 6134, University of Corsica

Abstract: We present in this article how, starting from a joint project undertaken at the University of Corsica between computer sciences researchers, anthropologists and astronomers, the problem of the definition of the concepts of abstraction levels and views of spatial data is crucial for analyzing archeological data. This interdisciplinary project begins with a first research work concerning in particular: - The GPS localization of Neolithic sites and toponyms in the Corsica island. - GIS representation of the previous data through spatial entities - Analysis of the previous spatial entities described at various abstraction levels. This first work enabled us to highlight a whole set of problems when dealing with data coming from the following domains : archaeology, anthropology and astronomy. The solution that we propose for the previous problems rests on a definition of abstraction levels for spatial data, as well as the definition of automatic transfer functions between abstraction levels. The implementation of the solution has been carried out using an oriented object design. We will present in detail in this article how the definition of the concepts of levels of abstraction and of transfer functions allows the resolution of problems previously highlighted. Moreover we will point out how starting from these concepts we can offer a generic software infrastructure allowing in particular: - To manage several levels of abstraction, - To define or use transfer functions between levels, - To carry out geometrical or astronomical analysis between various spatial archeological data. The generic software infrastructure is developed in Visual BASIC which makes it possible on the one hand to implement the various concepts by using a directed design purposes and on the other hand to facilitate the integration of these concepts in a GIS. The validation of the software is carried out within the framework of the interdisciplinary project. In a last part of the paper we will present how using the previous generic software we have been able to analyze how legends, megaliths and astronomy are linked in the Nebbiu Region in the north part of Corsica The megalithic Corsican civilization flourished in the first half of the fourth millennium B.C. This early phase has left numerous traces in Corsica that are to be found everywhere in the southern half of the island and in some very few parts in the northern part. As regards burials, there seems in megalithic times to have been the same orientation custom all over the island. We will also briefly present how the generic software can be used in order to facilitate the validation of the orientation custom all over Corsica . Bibliography Hoskin M., Tombs, Temples and their orientations, Cambridge , Editions Ocatarina, 2001. Ruas A., Modèle De généralisation de donnes géographiques à base de contraintes et d'autonomie, thèse à l'université de Marne la Vallée , 1999 Ruggles C., Astronomy Prehistoric Britain and Ireland, Yale University Press., 1999. Spaccapietra, S & all,. From multi-scale to Multi-Representation, Chooueiry & T.Walsh Edition, Proceedings 4th International Symposium, Texas, USA, 2000 Timpf S., Cartographic object in a Multi-scale Data Structure, Edition Carglia & Concelis. Geographic Information research: Bridging the Atlantic p 222-334. Timpf S & Frank, A., A Multi-scale DAG for Cartographic Object, auto-carto 12 Charlotte, NC, ACM/ASPRS, p 157-163 Vangenot C., Multi-représentation dans les bases de données géographiques école polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, thèse n° 2430 (2001). J.Cesari, Les dolmens de Corse, Archeologia, N°205, Septembre 1985, 32- 45. M . Hoskin et al., Orientations of Corsican dolmens, JHA, xxv (1994), 313- 317 M . Hoskin et al., Further orientations of Corsican dolmens, JHA, xxvi (1954), 347-252 El Hadi Khoumeri , J.F Santucci., Représentation hiérarchisée multi vues de données spatiales, Actes du Colloque CASINI 2004 F . de Lanfranchi, Le secrets des Mégalithes, Editions Albiana, 2000. F . Leandri et F. Demouche, Les mégalithes du Monte Revincu, Archeologia 358, Dijon, 1999, 32- 41. A .Mortillet, Rapport sur les monuments mégalithiques de la Corse , Nouvelles Archives des missions scientifiques, 1893.

Praise the sea, on shore remain? GIS analysis of travel routes in an Iron Age island environment

Robert Brian Rahn, University of York

Abstract: In recent years, GIS landscape models have begun to move towards more sophisticated techniques for representing the land surface for the purposes of analyzing site territories, pathways and travel costs. Many of the major commercial GIS packages now offer the ability to generate anisotropic cost surfaces. In addition, recent papers have proposed methodologies for generating cost surfaces to model social preferences affecting travel (Lee & Stucky 1998, Llobera 2000). In terms of practical applications, however, GIS models of catchment areas and paths between sites continue to be dominated by those constructed on the basis of slope alone. In parallel to this, regional analyses of site location, with few exceptions, have been undertaken either within large land masses, largely ignoring the effects of rivers, lakes and the sea on travel costs and affordances, or within single islands, neglecting travel to other neighbouring islands or the mainland. The reason for this appears to be twofold: First, there is little information available on travel costs and travel rates using pre-industrial transportation technology, beyond very general statements. Second, critical analysis of what constitutes an ‘acceptable' travel distance is lacking, especially in situations where both water and land transport are possibilities. This paper presents some preliminary results from a research project examining the location and distribution of Middle Iron Age sites (brochs) in the landscape of Orkney, Northern Scotland . It employs a terrain model taking into account differing friction values for land and water surfaces, as well as the nature of the shoreline (cliffs, beaches) and how this affects access from land to sea and vice versa. It also attempts to model pathways between sites following three friction models: lowest-cost, lowest-visibility (hidden) and highest-visibility (exposed).

Network Analysis and Landscape Stratigraphy

John Pouncett _ Institure of Archaeology, University of Oxford

Abstract: The principal intention of this paper is to consider the potential application of network analysis to the representation and interpretation of landscape stratigraphy. Physical and chronological relationships between archaeological features and deposits are commonly represented as stratigraphic matrices and land-use diagrams. Stratigraphic matrices typically place an emphasis on vertical relationships between individual stratigraphic units, neglecting the chronological implications of any physical relationships between units. Consequently, alternative methods of representation, including land-use diagrams, have been developed to facilitate the interpretation of stratigraphic sequences. These methods, typically used on (well-stratified) urban sites, have been adapted for the analysis of (unstratified) cropmark sites, supplementing stratigraphic sequences with ceramic phasing. The intention of this paper is to build upon these methods, considering ways in which physical and chronological relationships between archaeological features can be encoded as geometric and logical networks. Potential applications will be considered with reference to a number of case studies, including the development of prehistoric barrow cemeteries and later networks of linear earthworks. Recent discourse on landscape archaeology, particularly with regard to the development of prehistoric monument complexes, has been strongly influenced by the notions of time-geography and structuration theory. Studies have shown that architectural order is imposed on the landscape through projects which are implemented over a prolonged period of time (forward looking). Conversely, others have highlighted the way in which reference is made to monuments that are already in existence, emphasising the role of social memory (backward looking). The notion of temporality is implicit in both instances. Following the widespread adoption of GIS within landscape archaeology, physical relationships between (contemporary) monuments have been constituted in terms of either movement or visibility. With a few notable exceptions, however, chronological relationships have been largely neglected. Analysis is largely based on the comparison of a series of ‘snapshots', each of which in effect represents a finite moment in time. Polygon overlay and image differencing have been used to identify continuity and change between successive ‘snapshots'. Network analysis offers a different approach, allowing the introduction of greater flexibility and increased time depth. A series of prehistoric barrow cemeteries have been recorded on the Yorkshire Wolds. The development of these cemeteries is well documented. A significant number of the barrows are incorporated into the later networks of linear earthworks constructed on the Wolds from the Late Bronze Age onwards. These earthworks have been interpreted variously as linear boundaries and ‘rights of way'. Many correspond to parish boundaries and respect much earlier alignments. The relative sequence of monuments has been established through stratigraphic sequences and ceramic phasing. This sequence can be used to construct a network where locales (e.g. barrows and intersections of linear earthworks), can be represented as nodes/junctions, connected by arcs/edges that signify physical and chronological relationships. Network features and connectivity rules can subsequently be used to model the impact of dominant locales and establish a greater degree of temporal resolution. Systematic encoding of the relationships between locales also provides a mechanism whereby interpretative narratives can be constructed around the development of the archaeological landscape.

Between Creator and Reader: Towards Communicative Maps

Hugh Corley _ Department of Archaeology, University of Glasgow

Abstract: GIS technology has elevated the role maps play in re-enforcing and contradicting theories throughout the process of archaeological interpretation. Both as a data management and data presentation tool GIS influences, liberates and constrains the way we collect and use data. Maps are built, discussed and fine-tuned to achieve the best possible results but this dialogue frequently occurs in private and without the knowledge or experience of the fields of graphic design and cartography or the intended audience. As archaeologists, not graphic designers or cartographers, we have all produced maps for publications and presentations that fail to do justice to the time and effort spent collecting and organising that data. With all of this time spent gathering, validating and interpreting, why does the final map produced so often look to be an afterthought? This paper will demonstrate a variety of different techniques and apply them to different elements of archaeological maps resulting in more effective maps; maps that the audience can be expected to invest time interpreting and analysing. A weblog of our latest maps is available at to encourage dialogue about map production between team members, the initial audience for these maps as we are in the analysis stage of our project and with the intended readers of these publications both in and outside the archaeological community. By creating a forum for discussion we and others will be able to create more effective maps.

9 - Walking over lines: GIS Pattern Analysis


Forma Tarraconis?: GIS use for urban archaeology

Fiz.I _ Universidad Rovira i Virgili (ETSE)


The town-planning complexity of city as Tarragona, which growth at last fifty years has reached the limits that it would have at 2 C , it makes us to do an unificated planimetry of Tarragona that compiles not only the archaeological excavations made at last twenty five years but also the archaeological news. There are different objectives which have guided this work, and the chiefest one is the contribution of a general archaeological planimetry of the city to develop future researches. A second objective, without this it couldn't be possible the first one, has been the creation of an environment of work on which not only it might be possible to make a management of the archaeological patrimony, although we have concentrated on Tarragona, but also it was useful as a tool for the research teams. The conclusions of this work, on which this tool is used, are concentrated on comparing the information compiled, to try to rebuild the topography of Tarraco, and so that it's possible to resolve topographic problems as the limit of the coast at ancient times, the perimeter of city wall at the middle and low part, and also the morphology of the city.

The use of GIS in the study of Roman landscapes: Detection of roman cadastre in Patra – Greece

Niki Evelpidou, Andreas Vassilopoulos, Athanassios Rizakis, Konstantia Chartidou _ Remote Sensing Laboratory, University of Athens

Abstract: This study is a multi-disciplinary attempt to investigate the application of GIS tools in Roman landscapes and in the archaeological features associated to them. Specific purpose of the paper is the detection of Roman cadastre grid and a corresponding virtual model for the area of Patras. Patra is located in the southwest part of Greece in Peloponnesos, is the third largest city of Greece , and also the capital of the Achaea region of Greece . During the ancient years, Patras remained a farming region but during the Roman invasion it became an important port. The geographical position of Patra between East and West always assigned to the area the privilege of a cross-cultural meeting point, especially in the Roman era. The study of Roman cadastre detection is a quite complicated demanding the combination of different sciences and analysis techniques. Various technologies and applications have been used in order to increase accuracy, combine multiple information layers and reduce the overall processing time. The collection of primary data took place through fieldwork, SPOT satellite images, air photographs and existing paper maps. Field measurements have been taken with GPS (Global Positioning System), while environmental, geomorphological and archaeological data have been retrieved from topographical and geological maps, aerial photos and fieldwork. The use of specialized image processing software eliminated all deformations and distortions from the aerial photos. The contribution of the Geographical Information Systems was significant for the spatial and statistical analysis of geographical data. ‘Cadastre Grid Software' (MapInfo, 1999), a specialized GIS – based software, has three basic applications: a) automatic data base update with the orientation of all the lines, b) generation of different orientation and dimension grids and c) selection and map display of all the lines that match each grid's characteristics. Finally, the combined use of the geomorphological and the archaeological data led to the elimination of those archaeological elements that their initial position must have changed through time, due to natural events. The storage of the topographical, topological and attribute component of data enabled a quantitative, a territorial and a comparative mapping analysis of both the geomorphological and archaeological data. Given the fact that the Roman cadastre usually followed orientations according to the physical characteristics, like the morphology or the drainage system of the area, a series of output thematic maps and surface models have been created by interrelating slope directions, hydrological parameters, lithological formations and the recorded archaeological remains.

GIS Applications to the study of Daunian settlement patterns in the pre-Roman Age

Barbara Pecere _ University of Lecce, Italy

Abstract: Paper overview This paper explores the potential for applying GIS techniques to the investigation of Daunian settlement patterns in the pre-Roman Age (X-III century b.C.). For long time, research patterns influenced by stereotypes linked to the idea of “Hellenization” have favoured the survey on cemeteries and grave associations. Therefore, the picture of published archaeological evidences, enriched by the results of recent surveys, is fragmetary and suffers from the lack of an overall approach to the study of settlement systems of the area. The application of GIS and spatial analysis techniques to the case of study allowed to overcome the limits due to the fragmentary character of the single archaeological data and to deal with the study of a territory in a complete way, using the available elements (archaeological and environmental) to a greater comprehension of settlement systems, of their organization and development in time. Relevance The relevance of this work is due to the specific kind of archaeological data collected. It starts from collection of published data, which are dispersed, non homogenous and often incomplete, in order to propose new hypotheses about settlement dynamics during the pre-Roman Age. The results of spatial analyses can be also considered as a base on which to formulate new research hypotheses and surveying strategies. Goals Viewsheds Analysis and Cost Surface Analysis have been applied in order to understand settlement dynamics and development of settlement systems in time. In order to calibrate Cost Surface Analysis a grid surface of territory has been developed. The grid surface model has been created through the Weigthed Linear Combination methodology, which allows the combination between different territorial layers (slope, aspects, altimetry, hydrology, etc.). Reference The research presented in this paper on the GIS applications of Archaeology indigenous world can be considered an example of the possibilities and the results achievable by the utilization of the system GIS in the archaeological context. Improvements Viewsheds and Cost Surface Analysis have been applied in order to detect any relationship between the natural and the anthropic landscape and any information on the possible “hierarchy” among the sites included in these systems. Results Very interesting results regard the Early Iron Age (X-IX b.C.). This period, has been neglected in the bibliographical picture because of the lack of particularly important archaeological evidences. The systematic collection of information allowed us to identify an articulated and diversified settlement system, in which the absence of dominant centres must be stressed. It is possible instead to identify little settlements systems organized around water channel or near the coast. These centres would not have functioned individually, but as part of small systems made up of several sites

GIS analysis of land use and field patterns from historical cartography in Landscape Archaeology

Michele De Silva _ Dipartimento di Archeologia e Storia delle Arti, Università di Siena

Abstract: GIS analysis of land use and field patterns from historical cartography in Landscape Archaeology Michele De Silva Research is focused on the analytical potentialities of the land use and ownership patterns derived from historical maps and correlated documentation through GIS technologies in a Landscape Archaeology perspective. In an attempt to reconstruct ancient territorial settings we often encounter problems related to recent transformations which override earlier traces. In some cases, in order to overcome these difficulties, historical cartography referring to pre-industrial times allows us to link present and archaeological landscapes. From this perspective, cadastres of the 18th and 19th centuries represent precious sources of information due to their geometrical accuracy and wealth of detail. The insertion of historical cartography in a GIS context deeply enhances potentialities of the analysis of landscape transformation and continuity. In the case study presented here, the Catasto Leopoldino - the cadastre set up for the entire continental territory of the ‘Granducato di Toscana' between 1817 and 1835- has been used to obtain a detailed picture of the Ombrone river mouth area in Southern Tuscany in the early part of the 19th century, and more precisely between 1820 and 1825. Reclamation works and reorganization of the agricultural setting in the study area took place from the 1930's onwards, giving rise to considerable transformations of the landscape. Maps of this Cadastre have been acquired using a large format flatbed scanner, geometrically corrected and georeferenced. Subsequently, thematic layers such as buildings, hydrography, road networks, cadastral parcels, toponymy and reports of ruins and ancient remains have been vectorialized and inserted in a geodatabase together with their related attributes. The methodology, technical procedures and a few of the preliminary analytical results have already been presented on other occasions. Here we will focus on the analysis of the geometric pattern, land use and ownership of cadastral parcels and an evaluation of a possible relationship with earlier territorial settings. Size, module, geometry, regularity and orientation of the parcel pattern analysed in relation to known archaeological evidence (e.g. roads or buildings) may be revealed to derive from earlier field patterns. For example, the parcel pattern has been compared with the orientation of traces of the Aurelia Roman road, as represented in the cadastral maps, and also with traces of a Roman building (probably the statio of Hasta) -revealed by old aerial photographs- to attempt to recognize the presence of the centuriation pattern. At present the archaeological evidence of the road and of the building has virtually disappeared. Old parcel borders that indicate a discontinuity in land use or ownership may be the only evidence of ancient subdivisions of the territory or of the presence of ancients elements (e.g. roads or river beds) which are today invisible. The analysis of land use at the beginning of the 19th century, before recent transformations in the rural landscape, may also reveal cultivated areas that today appear to be neglected or covered over by woods. These old cultivations, for example of olive trees or vines, may constitute relicts of earlier rural organisations and settlement strategies. The availability of a detailed outline of the landscape before recent transformations not only aids archaeologists in providing a better understanding of the past, but constitutes a fundamental framework for planning archaeological field surveys.

10 - A view shed on Landscape: GIS Landscape Analysis


GIS and the Arctic Dark Season. A tale on visibility and pathway analysis from the lands of frozen seas and snow covered mountains

ans Peter Blankholm _ University of Tromso

Abstract: The pro's and con's of visibility and pathway analyses have been excellently summarized by Wheatley & Gillings in 2002. This paper addresses some further analytical and procedural aspects that seem less well known. In particular, it examines the theoretical and practical issues involved in visibility and pathway analyses in high-latitude regions with long, extended dark-seasons, and seasonally, extremely varied travelling conditions. In extension, a new, non-raster based, algorithm is proposed for pathway analysis.

Understanding viewsheds: a practical study of the uses of GIS in the study of archaeological visibility in the Iron Gates gorge

Kate Fernie _University of Oxford

Abstract: Studies of visibility in the landscape predate the availability of GIS, but the impact of GIS has been to give archaeologists a toolbox for rapidly investigating the visual characteristics of a landscape using quantifiable and repeatable methods. As a result visibility studies have become more widespread in archaeology. But several different techniques are available for creating the Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that are the basis for visibility studies in GIS. Each of these techniques produces models that can be used in analysis but there are differences in the models that have implications for archaeological visibility studies. This project set out to investigate the different techniques that are available to create DEMs with the aim of understanding the differences in the techniques and their implications for archaeologists. The project data was derived from a dataset developed by Vuk Trifkovic for the Iron Gates region in Serbia; the area around the Mesolithic site at Lepenski Vir, which lay on the bank of the river Danube as it passed through the Iron Gates gorge. The data used consisted of height data for a grid of 200 points across the region. Using the five interpolation methods available in Vertical Mapper (Inverse distance weighting; Natural neighbour; Rectangular; Triangulation with smoothing and Kriging) five DEMs were created and compared. The five different interpolation methods created different models of the topography of the region based on the points in the original dataset. As the landscape of the Iron Gates Gorge is very dramatic, the differences between the interpolation methods were emphasised. Different interpolation methods use different algorithms to calculate the slope in between the points provided in the original dataset. Some methods smooth the slope between points, while others assume the steepest slope. The project looked at the impact of this difference on viewsheds, by comparing viewsheds from the site of Lepenski Vir based on each of the five DEMs. The differences were dramatic with clear implications of choosing the most appropriate method of creating a DEM for archaeological visibility studies.

Multiple, cumulative and total viewshed: an application in the genil river valley

Mar Zamora _ Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Abstract: This paper shows a Geographic Information Systems application in Archaeology. In particular, it deals with the study of visibility during the 2nd Iron Age in the Genil river valley ( Andalusia , Spain ), along the river's stretch shared by the present-day provinces of Cordoba and Seville . The landscape is a sedimentary basin, an open valley of mild topographical shapes, to a large extent composed of hills. Some of these hills hold 2nd Iron Age hillforts on their tops. The aim of the work is to explore the visual structure of this cultural landscape. Sites have been visited for exploring in the field their visual patterns. For approaching the topic through the use of computers (i.e. for exploring the visual structure of topography) several kinds of viewshed analysis (multiple, cumulative and total viewshed) are applied in order to assess their scientific possibilities for landscape Archaeology. The Digital Terrain Model for such calculations has been obtained from 1:10.000 digital cartography including both contour lines ( 10 m interval) and their intermediate height points. Sites have been understood as a group of points over the hillforts' surface, as well as over their respective nearby hilltops, with a culturally appropriate offset A. Some others important aspects involved in this kind of studies (e.g. edge effects and suitable visibility radius) are also taken into account, in particular those related to the vertical angle of vision. All computer tasks have been carried out using ArcGis ArcView 8.2. The interest of the paper lies in its comprehensive approach, which provides a sound basis for research, since several kinds of viewshed calculations as well as both cultural features and field observations are integrated. The work is part of the author's PhD Project. AUTHOR'S RELATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: - 2002: “Computerised and real viewsheds. An example from the Genil River valley, Southern Spain”, Archaeological Computing Newsletter, 58, Institute of Archaeology , Oxford , 7-10. - 2003: Arqueología espacial en el valle medio del Genil. Trabajo de Investigación de Doctorado, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, (Unpublished). - 2004: “Viewshed variations throughout the year at the Alhonoz site ( Seville , Spain ) and its implications on the local communication network”, Enter the Past, The E-way into the Four Dimensions of Cultural Heritage, CAA 2003, Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2003, British Archaeological Reports International Series, 1227, Oxford , Abstract en Cdrom. - (forthcoming): “Topoclimatic Models and Viewshed”, Beyond the Artifact, CAA04, Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2004, Prato (Italia). - (forthcoming): “Choosing the Radius in Viewshed”, Beyond the Artifact, CAA04, Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2004, Prato (Italia), abstract. - (forthcoming): “Visibilidad y SIG en Arqueología: mucho más que ceros y unos”, Actas de las Jornadas de Arqueología Territorios Antiguos y Nuevas Tecnologías. La aplicación de los SIG en la Arqueología del Paisaje, 18 y 19 de noviembe de 2004, Universidad de Alicante.

Revisiting the FLK Zinjanthropus floor: the potential of GIS in ESA archaeological applications

Michael Causey _ Institute of Archaeology


The FLK Zinjanthropus floor at Olduvai is a well-known site of the Early Stone Age. It has ben a focal point for the recent debate on hominin settlement patterns and subsistence strategies, mostly because of the massive amount of material remains and good taphonomy. However, few studies focus specifically on the spatial arrangements of stone artefacts and faunal remains. Indeed, perhaps the only analysis to do so was conducted by Milla Ohel in the 1970s. The following case study applies GIS technology in an effort to unravel certain spatial associations between stone artefacts and faunal remains. In order to achieve this, a methodology was established to understand spatial relationships. Random data sets (layers) were created for both stone tools and faunal remains. These were then compared to the actual accumulations of stone tools and faunal remains. Faunal remains were reclassified into five categories: long, skull, extremity, irregular and axial. Buffers were positioned around bones to count the number of stone tools within certain radial distances. It was discovered that a spatial association exists between UTH tools and axial bones. Since UTH tools comprised a pounding tool-kit for early hominins, it seems possible that these tools may have been used to extract marrow from long bones and grease from axial elements. However, at least two caveats need to be considered in this study: (1) A quantitative spatial relationship between material remains does not necessarily mean that a particular stone tool was used to process a faunal element and (2) the palimpsest nature of the archaeological record of the ESA makes behavioural interpretations both challenging and even excruciatingly difficult. Nevertheless, this case study supports the hypothesis that early hominins at FLK used UTH tools on both long and axial bones to extract marrow and grease, respectively. It is hoped the following analysis will demonstrate the potential of GIS in ESA archaeological applications.

Towards Prehistoric Landscape Interpretation: Gis Analysis of Stratigraphical and Remote Sensing Data in Sesto Fiorentino Plain

Pizziolo Giovanna _ Dipartimento di Archeologia e Storia delle Arti, Università di Siena

Abstract: This paper explores the contribution offered by an integrated analysis of stratigraphies and remote sensing data for prehistoric landscape interpretation of Sesto Fiorentino plain ( Florence , Italy ) performed through GIS tools. A large amount of archaeological contexts of which 27 belonging to prehistoric period, emerged in the last twenty years during rescue excavations undertaken by the University of Siena and the University of Firenze. The archaeological heritage policy adopted by the Municipality of Sesto Fiorentino in collaboration with Soprintendenza per i beni Archeologici includes systematic preliminary archaeological test pits which were executed in all the area interested by urban expansion. Therefore it is unfeasible to excavate the archaeological site in continuity with its surroundings and in some cases it is also impossible to determine the complete extension of the site. In this perspective it is crucial to gain information also from other sources in order to obtain useful contributions for a contextual reading of the landscape palimpsest. In particular, at this stage of the research we are focusing on stratigraphic information for the understanding of the palaeonvironmental framework in which the prehistoric settling process occurred. This paper shows the methodological approach adopted to combine the stratigraphical data deriving from test pits with other information related to geomorphological background. In particular we are interested to explore the potentialities of a spatial elaboration of geological stratigraphies taking into account their correlation with archaeological context. Actually we are testing, from a landscape archaeology point of view, a GIS application developed by the Geographical Information System Unit (Direzione Generale Territorio e Urbanistica - Sistema Informativo Territoriale) of the Lombardia Region institution.. The application, named urca.avx and developed for ArcView 3.2 has been produced in collaboration between geologists and computer scientists in order to acquire, manage, analyse and visualise different kind of data related to test pits, logs, samples, and test in situ. This GIS extension has been created to record in an homogeneous way all the information available from the different geological investigations conducted in the Lombardia territory, trough a relational standardisation process. As a first step every information is georeferenced as a point however endowed with its volumetric and depth characteristics; then the database is filled up with further required details. The urca.avx correlates any stratigraphical data in cross section view. The user draws a line of section and chooses between different ways of assigning data to it. The application consents to visualise, in a correct spatial way, the data related to the line of section through standardised and hierarchical symbols. One of the advantages that should be highlighted is that once the user marks significant stratigraphic sequence and recognizes geological surface the application correlates these information with additional cross section views . The application, beyond the archive utilities offered by its database structure, works as an analytical tool which allows geologists to formulate hypotheses on the underground settings. Essentially we are exploring the potentialities of urca.avx for landscape archaeology research in Sesto Fiorentino territory. Also in this case a large amount of data needs to be acquired homogeneously merging together information gathered in different ways. We need to associate geological test pits and archaeological stratigraphies in order to reconstruct the landscape transformation of the study area. In particular we are testing the feasibility of this application for the interpretation of archaeological surface at an inter-site level. We are experimenting if the urca application provides an effective environment in which is possible to formulate hypotheses on the prehistoric terrain surface. Moreover it is motivating to verify if the geomorphological features derived by photo-interpretation (on historical and colour infra-red photos) can show a relationship with information derived by geological tests. The complementarity of these integrated data, also with the help of this application, may provide a substantial exploration of the context towards an interpretation of prehistoric landscape.

Visualizing hunter-gatherers adaptive strategies: the alpine early Mesolithic in north eastern Italy as a test case

Fabio Cavulli* & Stefano Grimaldi*^

* Dipartimento di Scienze Filologiche e Storiche, Università di Trento, Italia

^ Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, Trento , Italia.

The Alps play a significant role in our understanding the ancient relationship among Man and Nature. Current archaeologists are looking for an answer to questions such as: How did early Holocene hunter-gatherers interact with the new ever changing climatic and landscape features in the Alps after the end of the Last Ice Age? Were they continuously adopting new behavioural patterns mostly based on different mobility and settlement strategies?. Traditional approach remains strictly linked to “lithic discussions”, typically considered as being essential in archaeological studies. This research aims to present the first results of a multi-integrated approach basically related to GIS analysis. Expected results are: a more developed definition of alpine land use prehistoric models, an increased understanding of settlement and mobility dynamics, a more suitable reconstruction of paleoenvironments in the Italian eastern Alps during the Pleistocene / Holocene transition, a developed interpretation of the ecological interrelations among human and non-human living beings. The final aim of this study is to provide a behavioural framework adopted by prehistoric hunter gatherers human groups in alpine environment which changes over time according to different environmental, geomorphological, and climatic conditions.

Several archaeological sites, dating from about 12.000 to 8.000 years BP, and located in Trentino region (northeastern Italian Alps) will be investigated by integrating different archaeological research topics such as a) environment reconstructions, b) community ecology, c) models of settlement and mobility strategies, d) models of raw material procurement, e) technological, typological and use-wear analysis of both lithic and bone/antler items, f) archaeozoological analyses on faunal remains, g) already published as well as new C14 datings, and h) other themes. Most of data come from original researches carried on by the authors in the last two years. Neverthless, already published data will be used as a useful historical starting point of interpretation.

All these data are collected in a relational database. On the other hand, the realisation of themes (polygons) related on modern data - such as a) vegetation, b) fauna, c) temperature, d) atmospheric precipitation, e) main wind draughts, f) lithic sources, g) water springs and streams, h) food supplies analysis, and so on - will help us to set up a predictive model useful for reconstructing the different prehistoric environments which characterized this mountaneous region in Italy from about 12.000 to 8.000 years ago. By analysing the relationship between these two blocks of information - the prehistoric and the modern ones, respectively - the localisation of some "task-areas" in the landscape is expected. More, according to environmental and archaeological features, it will be possible to recognize the location of the activity focus as well as to explain topographic, environmental, and/or adaptive constraints. Migration tracks, cost distance analysis, viewshed analysis and site catchment analysis are the further steps for a GIS elaboration process of data. Rather then being an aim itself, GIS is used as a tool for archaeological studies by constructing an archaeology of place and, moreover, an archaeology of change. That is why, the GIS analysis shown in this study will try to find its way to display not only 2D and 3D models but also the fourth dimension: the time.

11 - With eyes closed: Geophysics Applications


Palaepaphos , Cyprus : The contribution of Geographical Information Systems and Geophysical Prospection in the study of the archaeological topography and settlement patterns

G. Stamatis; A. Sarris; N. Papadopoulos; E. Kokkinou; S. Topouzi; E. Kokkinaki; E. Moissi; M. Iakovou; V. Kassianidou; G. Papassavas; G. Papantoniou; M. Dikomitou; St. Stylianidis

Abstract: A large number of monuments in the wider region of Palaepaphos , Cyprus (today known as Kouklia) have been excavated since the late 19 th and the mid-20 th centuries. These archaeological monuments are dated from the Late Bronze Age to the Venetian Domination and the Turkish Rule. Specifically, the monuments that have been systematically excavated include the Sanctuary of Aphrodite, parts of the fortification of the ancient city, houses with mosaics, administrative residences, two historical industrial installations of cane sugar refinery and a number of tombs – either single graves or extended cemeteries.

For the aforementioned reasons, the design of an interactive tool which utilizes the G.I.S. technology has been proposed for the monitoring of the development plans of the region, emphasizing the registration, conservation and protection of the cultural and environmental monuments of the area. The continuous recording of the archaeological and cultural material of the area under examination can be used as a basis for the confrontation of significant problems concerned with the heritage management, such as the modern development and the changing land-use patterns.

A relational database was constructed for the registration of the monuments distributed in the wider region of Palaepaphos, together with those finds located at the local Archaeological Museum . An extensive high accuracy DGPS survey was conducted for the spatial registration of the monuments to the local topographic system. Digitization techniques were used for the georeferencing of the aerial images and the digital topographic and geological maps. Geophysical prospection techniques, including magnetic and soil resistance surveys, were carried out in order to provide additional information regarding the subsurface relics in relation to the excavated or surface monuments. Finally, the superposition of the above information layers allowed a further spatial analysis through the use of GIS tools. Statistical correlations of the monuments with slope and aspect, viewshed analysis and least cost path calculations were employed in an effort to reconstruct the fortification wall of the ancient city and recover parts of the fragmentary record of the town plan.

The Archaeo-Geophysical Prospections Made at Magura Uroiului ( Romania )

Angelica Balos, Adriana Ardeu, Roxana Stancescu, Calin Suteu _ Museum of Dacian and Roman Civilisation

Abstract: The researches made in the archaeological site from Magura Uroiului showed the existence of archaeological complexes belonging to Eneolithic, Bronze Age, First Iron Age and Second Iron Age periods. The aerial photographies and the archaeological soundings indicate that the settlement had a surface about 25 ha , the site having a suspended plateau shape, limited by a fortification at the Southern, South-Eastern and Eastern parts. The archaeological and geophysical researche project consisted in prospection on a surface by 1,65 ha , using the magnetomethric metod. It was researched a surface limited by the fortification line and by guidmark system established by GPS system. The prospected area within the archaeological site, is a very complex one not only because the presence of the anomaly of the archaeological structures, but the existence of important modern defensive system on the whole plateau. The gradeomethric investigation made at a high resolution showed interested situations by archaeological point of view. This may confirm the human living corresponding to the archaeological indexes becoming evident through systematic archaeological research. The magnetic anomallies translated as having archaeological characteristics, consist in positives/negatives varriations presenting an associate disposind, in groups which demonstrate the existence of some complexes containing pottery agglomerations, burned adobe and maybe fireplaces.

Geophysical Data Fusion: Combining Sensor Outputs Through Graphical, Mathmatical, and Statistical Approaches

Eileen G. Ernenwein, Kenneth L. Kvamme _ University of Arkansas

Abstract: The use of more than one geophysical instrument has become the rule rather than the exception for archaeological prospection. The reasons for this are simple: more features of archaeological interest are potentially detected, features detected with more than one instrument are more confidently identified, and the complementary nature of different data sets may reveal more of the archaeological puzzle than the individual input layers. For example, supposed an electrical resistance data set reveals the walls of a prehistoric structure, while a magnetometry survey indicates its hearth, and a GPR survey reveals anomalies for both features. Taken alone the resistance data set shows a probable structure, the magnetometry data a solitary anomaly that is difficult to interpret, and the GPR data a probable structure with an unidentified feature near the center. Together, however, the GPR and resistance data strongly suggest the presence of a structure and the magnetometry data reveal that the central anomaly is likely to be a hearth (or some other burned or magnetometer feature). The benefits of a more confident and detailed interpretation are significant cost savings if excavations are to take place, and minimization of unintended destruction of archaeological materials. Several techniques have been developed to capitalize on the synergistic relationship of geophysical data. Perhaps the most common is the superimposition of vector interpretations for each layer. In this way, the features identified by each method are digitized, and then combined with the other vector layers. This method is very effective, but one worries that some of the relationships between different data layers are overlooked when each one is interpreted separately. What is needed is a way to simultaneously visualize the significant contributions of each geophysical data layer. A plethora of methods to accomplish this are available and have only been utilized in a handful of cases. In this paper several methods for combining geophysical data into solitary composites are reviewed and illustrated with the use of magnetic gradiometry, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity, and ground penetrating radar data sets collected over a 1-hectare portion of a large adobe-walled pueblo (AD 1200-1400) in the American Southwest. Three categories of fusion methods are utilized: (1) graphical overlays, (2) mathematical operations, and (3) statistical analyses. Graphical overlays include the use of color translucencies to simultaneously portray more than one continuous data set, as well as hyperdimensional graphics that capitalize on 3D displays, continuous color palettes, and isoline contours. Mathematical methods include binary thresholding, Boolean logic, and pixel-based computational functions. Statistical fusion methods can be divided into two general categories: data reduction and classification techniques. Data reduction is most efficiently accomplished through principle components analysis, whereby significant components are identified that number fewer than the input layers, and therefore represent fusions based on statistical correlations. The resulting component layers are not only fusions themselves, but can be combined by any of the previously mentioned graphical or mathematical methods. Classification represents a drastically different fusion approach whereby groups or classes are identified either by natural clusters in measurement space (unsupervised classification) or by discriminant functions guided by user-defined classes (supervised classification).

12 - Photogrametry


3D Mapping of a Pre-historic Landscape in Ireland using Digital Photogrammetry

Anthony Corns, Robert Shaw, The Discovery Programme

Abstract: This paper outlines the implementation of a digital photogrammetric mapping system for both high detail 3D modelling of archaeological structures and the mapping of the wider surrounding landscape. Following on from our previous 3D surveying projects The Discovery Programme was approached by Dr. Stefan Berg of the National University of Ireland ( Galway ) to undertake a detailed 3D survey of a complex pre-historic landscape as part of an on-going research project. The site, Mullaghfarna, Co. Sligo, Ireland, is a compact group of over 100 small stone enclosures and ‘hut-sites' situated on a karst limestone pavement. It is a dramatic remote location on a high exposed plateau below the renowned Carrowkeel passage tomb complex and overlooking Lough Arrow with panoramic views to the north and west. Unlike our previous 3D landscape surveys which have primarily been earthwork remains, this site consists largely of stone structures formed on the natural limestone surface. The objective of the project was not only to record the structural detail of the features but also model them in their wider landscape context. It quickly became apparent that the GPS ground survey and modelling approach which had been effective on previous surveys would not be appropriate and alternative methods would be needed. Our research programme in 2004 had assessed the potential of digital photogrammetry as a recording and modelling technique and we believed this could offer the best solution. The challenge would be to see whether it could achieve the high precision and detailed modelling necessary to meet the ambitious research aims, whilst remaining within the tight project budget. In essence the archaeological team wanted to be able to look at the models at the stone by stone level. This paper details how we approached the project and developed our methodology. We first had to resolve the relationship between photographic scale, practical flying height, image resolution and ground coverage. We had to assess the ground survey control requirements of our system and undertake an appropriate pre-flight photo-control marking survey. A scanning resolution had to be selected to maximise the quality of our work whilst keep file size practical. The functionality of the photogrammetric software (Geomatica 9) was investigated so that it could carry out the complex aero-triangulation processes to create accurate stereo images from a limited number of ground control points. This research also investigated the balance between model complexity and detail and available computer processing facilities. Finally we had to consider the methods of delivery of our detailed mapping and 3D modelling of the site to the research team. The economical viability of this and future photogrammetric projects is discussed. For too long, photogrammetric techniques have been dismissed as too expensive and too complex for the average non-specialist to consider. This paper outlines the economic viability of a digital pghotogrammetric solution to the archaeological research community. It is hoped that this paper will show that archaeologists can consider photogrammetry to be an appropriate, cost effective and desirable way to approach mapping projects, even when extremely high detail in required. For too long, photogrammetric techniques have been dismissed as too expensive and too complex for the average non-specialist to consider

Photogrammetric recording of the archaeological site of Pinchango Alto ( Palpa , Peru ) using a mini helicopter (UAV)

Henri Eisenbeiss, Martin Sauerbier, Karsten Lambers _ ETH Zurich, German Institute of Archaeology

Abstract: In this paper, a new system for the recording of archaeological sites based on an autonomous UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) is described that has recently been employed in the framework of the long-term Nasca-Palpa Archaeological Project in the Nasca region on the south coast of Peru . In the vicinity of Palpa, the prehispanic site of Pinchango Alto is an attractive, yet difficulttarget for archaeological research. On the one hand, its well preserved stone architecture, abundant surface finds, and richly furnished graves dating to the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400) offer many opportunities to study this still poorly understood pre-Incaic period. On the other hand, access to and working on the site is rather difficult, since it is situated on top of a narrow ridge high above the Río Grande valley at the foot of the western Andean cordillera and framed by deep ravines. The recording of the preserved surface remains therefore required a highly mobile and flexible documentation system. In the 2004 field campaign we used a Canon D60 CMOS camera carried by a model helicopter to acquire a series of vertical aerial images for a photogrammetric recording and 3D modeling of the site and the surrounding terrain. UAVs have in recent years increasingly been used in infrastructure maintenance and precision farming. They are also suitable for cultural heritage recording. The system used in Pinchango Alto is
based on a commercial low cost model helicopter by Survey Copter with a wingspan of 1.8 m . Additionally, it features an integrated GPS/INS unit as well as a stabilizer developed by ETH Zurich and weControl. While the GPS/INS unit enables semiautomated navigation along a predefined flight path controlled via laptop by a ground-based operator, the stabilizer ensures a stable flight attitude and thus a highly reliable image acquisition. Even though the systems does not yet include all features intended for the final version, like automated image release or direct control of the camera perspective via laptop, it enabled us to take in an efficient way a precise series of low altitude, digital aerial images at a scale and degree of overlap suitable for a photogrammetric recording of the ridge and the architecture. Due to the terrain and the required scale, this would not have been possible from an airplane, which was previously used for the documentation of the Nasca lines in the same region, nor from a normal helicopter. Additionally, the entire site was documented by terrestrial laser scanning using a Riegl LMS-Z420i with a range of 800 m and a calibrated CCD camera on top kindly provided by Riegl GmbH, Austria . Ground control points used for orienting the aerial images as well as the scan positions were determined with differential GPS. This terrestrial surveying fieldwork, which will be described in detail elsewhere, provided another dataset for the 3D modeling of the site. The analysis of the aerial images aims at the generation of an elevation model and an orthophoto of Pinchango Alto for 3D visualization. This has so far been achieved for the eastern part of the site, where the best preserved stone architecture is located. Work at ETH Zurich included image pre-processing, semiautomatic triangulation, and DTM generation employing inhouse software as well as commercials systems. Various DTMs and orthophotos were generated based on both image and laser data. Finally, a virtual 3D model of the site was produced and visualized. In this paper we present the first results of our ongoing work in Pinchango Alto (DTMs, orthophotos, 3D models) and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the UAV-based documentation system for archaeological research.

Digital Photogrammetry in Archaeology: 3D Representation of sites

Mercedes Farjas, Andres Diez, Julian Aguirre, Jorge Bernardino, Nieves Quesada _ Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

Abstract: By means of engineering technologies, the CARPA Laboratory specialises in data acquisition produced by different teams using topographic, photogrammetric and geodesic methods, in order to obtain 2D and 3D representations of objects, buildings and surfaces. Our speciality also extends to design techniques and associated technologies, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing. The aim of this paper is to show the results of the digital photogrammetry methodology and its potential for application in Archaeology. The photogrammetry technology was carried out in order to study the possibilities for using photogrammetry methods and digital modelling techniques in archaeological sites and findings, giving them a precision appropriate to these techniques. The specific aims of this project are to obtain a three-dimensional digital model, applying photogrammetric methods for near-by 2,5 mm , ? objects, with a final precision of coordinates of the object of securing a methodology that was precise and practical for filed use, and easy to transport and apply. This digital model could be incorporated in the reconstruction of the archaeological environment, in the reconstruction of the site in the event that it was in bad condition, in the acquisition of profile and transverse sections, and could be integrated in multimedia applications with different finishing and visualisation sequences. In this paper we will show the general possibilities of the digital photogrammetry methodology and the application of the 3D representation of three different sites in Jebel Buhais Archaeological Area, in the United Arab Emirates . It will also show the data collection works of archaeological data in BHS 66, BH67 and the 5 Burial artefacts, in an attempt to create and define a general methodology with non metric camera images to serve to archaeology, transferring the updated potential of photogrammetry into Archaeology. In order to conduct the observations, a T2 Wild theodolithe and a TC 705 “total stations” by Leica were used, with stationing equipment and rigid STARS. The observations were simultaneously carried out, thereby, reducing the observation times and the problems derived from them. Two sorts of data were observed: support points and auxiliary points. In the case of the support points, spherical signals of 3 mm diameter were used, which permitted precise aiming from any incidence angle of the line of vision. The auxiliary points were made using adhesive targets, being very careful with the angles, which could affect the lines of vision. The support points were located on a metallic support stakes, and they were distributed by placing three of them at three different heights. These points of support were used for the calibration of the photograms and throughout their orientation process. The observation method was used to carry out the multiple resections and to applied least square adjustments by the calculation. In the calculation process, first of all, the analytical relative orientation of the theodolite stations was carried out in order to obtain the coordinates of the common points observed from the stations, but with an arbitrary scale and orientation. The clouds of independent points with different scales and orientations are going to be distributed in only one system of reference through spatial similarity transformations. For the photogrammetric process of the project, without knowing the internal parameters, a nonmetric digital camera was used. This sort of camera has the advantage of being cheaper and easier to use, besides using cheaper film, which is easier to process. Since they are not calibrated, the determination of the parameters must be carried out for each take, which implies an increase in workload during the process. The photogrammetric process of calibration and orientation of two sets will include the following phases: • Previous measurement to determine the parameters of internal orientation of each photogram. • Determination of the parameters of the internal orientation of the camera. • Internal orientation of each camera. • Relative orientation of each pair of photograms. • Absolute orientation of each pair of photograms. • Verification of the adjustment. The restitution of the sites is going to be undertaken using the Microstation environment, which supports the digital restitutor. The digital model is going to be transformed with points and lines obtained through the stereoscopic display of the epipolar images obtained. In each model, as many points as required to obtain a good distribution for the triangulation of the digital model, will be obtained. The edges and well defined details will be restituted through lines, and the uniform areas or areas with a lower level of detail are going to be restituted by points. The cloud of points obtained are going to be triangulated using the Intergraph modelling programme. Photogrammetry nowadays has been developed as technology using remote sensing images treatment software, to automise the processes. Image processing allows 2D features but photogrammetry provides the third dimension instantaneously making it possible to introduce high accuracy analysis in the archaeological data collection process. As photogrammetry specialists our goals are not only to provide 3D data registers, but also to get sufficient accuracy at any scale to avoid the necessity for sketches during the excavation process.

3D Modeling of Large Cultural Heritage Sites from Satellite and Aerial Images

Armin Gruen, Martin Sauerbier _ Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry, ETH Zurich

Abstract: Recently, the need for preservation and documentation of cultural heritage has become more and more important, in fact throughout the world. This increased requirement demands the adoption of modern and efficient techniques for data acquisition, especially for large sites. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, based on aerial photographs and satellite imagery, are well-suited techniques for large area mapping tasks, and the derivable products can serve as valuable means for further investigations like archaeological prospection or 3D modeling of terrain and buildings as well as for a GIS-based analysis of cultural landscapes. In our paper, we will describe the current state of the available technology by means of projects which were conducted successfully at our institute, e.g. the 3D reconstruction of the Bamiyan valley in Afghanistan, the Nasca/Palpa project (Peru) and the mapping of Mount Everest from aerial images, to name just the most important ones. The prerequisites today offer a wide variety of new opportunities in the area of aerial and satellite image processing. A manifold of new sensors increases the data acquisition rate and the resolution of image data, from digital airborne cameras to satellite sensors. Furthermore, especially for cultural heritage documentation, image-based methods are not only suited to model objects in their current state, but allow also for the modeling of earlier states of preservation if appropriate images exist. Examplary projects are the Bamiyan project, where the destroyed Buddha statues could be reconstructed virtually by the means of terrestrial images or the Túcume project, where erosion-affected adobe architecture was modeled in a state of preservation as of 1949 using aerial imagery. The high data processing speed available today, new methods of visualization and the development of information systems for spatial analysis increase the benefit of image data. On the other hand, to improve efficiency and acceptance of these technologies in the cultural heritage related community, new approaches for automated data processing have to be established. New methods, developed and implemented at our institute, dealing with the automation of aerial and satellite image processing, will be described in the paper. The improvements focus on automated triangulation, automated generation of digital terrain models (DTM) and the implementation of sensor models. For the automated triangulation and DTM generation from satellite and aerial line sensors, the software package SAT-PP was designed, which was applied in the frame of the Bamiyan project. Furthermore, for the SPOT-5 satellite sensor, a geometrical model was developed and used for DTM generation of the Bamiyan valley. Nevertheless, the shortcomings and limits of airborne and satellite sensors and images will be critically pointed out and potential for future enhancement will be discussed. The goal of this paper is to communicate the potentials of satellite and aerial images and the derivable products as well as the current state of research to a broad part of the cultural heritage related community.

13 - Archaeology on-line


A Comparative analysis of current ontological techniques in supporting a community of interest pertaining to the Cultural Heritage sector

John Mc Auley, Eoin Kilfeather _ Digital Media Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology

Abstract: In the early years of the internet online communities (OC) were considered a social phenomenon. However the last couple of years have seen a paradigm shift in the methodology for building virtual communities. The commercial sector has recognised the benefit of adding more depth and vitality to their sites through the inclusion of user created content. The effect of strong commitment and loyal members towards sustaining the community can significantly add to their success. The internet, with its ability to invoke a higher sense of agency provides a perfect platform for a grass roots approach to community development. Previously static information sites now offer discussion forums and advanced Content Management Systems (CMS) to try and invoke and sustain continued interest within their user base. The cultural heritage sector has similarly seen a strengthening of online communities. Increasingly, communities are being supported through the development of progressively more sophisticated Cultural Heritage (CH) portals and collaboration environments. With the advent of knowledge management as a recognised and increasingly practised discipline, new techniques and methodologies have been developed to enhance online collaboration and content management. This is evidenced by the research being carried out on the Semantic Web which employs many artificial intelligence techniques from ontological development to advanced data analysis. The use of formal semantics to support collaborative content creation and discovery however is insufficient. It seems that cultural heritage discourse is necessarily mediated by narrative. Within this context, narrative is viewed as the principle way in which knowledge is constructed and exchanged within a cultural heritage domain. Consequently tools and methods for CH communities are being developed which support explicitly ‘narrative' objects. A distinction however should be made when defining an online community (OC). From the amassing OC literature it is clear that several distinct types of community have emerged to support the individual needs of the community members. The software platform that supports group interaction mirrors the purpose and social policies of the community. An important question then arises - how does the introduction of more formal semantics affect the individual community models? The use of increasingly descriptive ontological representations and elaborate knowledge software leads the authors to question the appropriate level of sophistication required to support a successful heritage community. This paper presents a comparative analysis of existing techniques being employed in the development of content management and community supporting platforms and their applicability in the heritage domain. The authors examine the application of intelligence in supporting online communities in the cultural heritage practice. By treating narrative as the principle component of knowledge transfer the paper compares the state of the art and examines the support currently available for advanced narrative authoring. The authors also attempt to use the literature to draw out a definition of a cultural heritage online community and to emphasise the similarities and differences of distinct online typologies currently used within the CH sector.

Bases for the creation of an ontology in the context of Archaeology

Juan María Fernández González, Antonio Polo Márquez, Enrique Cerrillo Cuenca _ Universidad de Extremadura

Abstract: La Web se ha convertido en los últimos años en la principal fuente de conocimiento por la gran cantidad de información que se encuentra disponible. No obstante la ingente cantidad de información disponible en la Web , impide que la recuperación de la información sea una taera fácil. Para solucionar este problema la comunidad científica esta desarrollando la Web Semántica que incluye, además de la información de la Web actual, descripciones semánticas de qué representa y significa parte de esa información.

La descripción y clasificación semántica de los datos se realiza mediante una ontología, es decir “una especificación explicita y formal de una conceptualización compartida en un dominio de conocimiento”. En definitiva, tratamos de estructurar el conocimiento de una manera lógica, de tal modo que a partir de aplicaciones informáticas sea posible la recuperación de información de la Web. En nuestro caso el dominio de conocimiento en el que estamos desarrollando nuestro trabajo es el de la Arqueología. Esta aplicación no sólo automatiza las posibilidades de búsqueda y organización de la información arqueológica, sino que amplifica las posibilidades de interpretación del registro arqueológico. Definir de forma explicita la conceptualización de la Arqueología con los lenguajes ontológicos desarrollados recientemente (OWL, DAML+OIL, RDF, etc.) es ciertamente una tarea compleja, aunque documentada. El principal inconveniente que hallamos para lograr la definición de un lenguaje formal en Arqueología es la incapacidad de representar el conocimiento de forma compartida. Dado que en el caso de la Arqueología no se aplica una única conceptualización del conocimiento, cabe la posibilidad de que existan tantas ontologías como proyectos o necesidades específicas. En la actualidad, estamos desarrollando un sistema que nos permita almacenar y consultar distintas ontologías definidas para la Arqueología. Para establecer diferencias entre ontologías, utilizamos el “contexto” que se define como “cualquier información sobre las circunstancias, objetos o condiciones que rodean a la ontología y que son relevantes para la interacción entre la ontología y los datos”. El funcionamiento del sistema que proponemos desarrollar, permite almacenar ontologías bajo distintos contextos, consiguiendo de esta manera recoger gran parte del conocimiento de la Arqueología bajo el mismo sistema. Las consultas se realizaran a partir del contexto, por lo tanto trabajaremos solo con el conocimiento que verdaderamente es de nuestro interés. De una forma práctica nuestro trabajo se desarrolla sobre un conjunto de ontologías publicadas sobre la Arqueología , en la actualidad trabajamos con dos ontologías una creada en la Universidad de Extremadura para el análisis de los datos de excavación de Los Barruecos Y otra ontología que está siendo definida en la Universidad Jaume I. En el futuro esperamos incorporar más ontologías según vayan siendo publicadas. Del estudio independiente de ambas se extrajo el contexto bajo el cual fueron definidas. De este modo podemos trabajar de una manera eficiente en realizar consultas basadas en contexto para extraer conocimiento mediante las dos ontologías. Se plantea por tanto un tema de interés, tanto desde el punto de vista informático como el arqueológico: la posibilidad de acceder, clasificar y analizar elementos tangibles y conceptos arqueológicos desde objetivos y posturas teóricas diferentes.

Turning Grey Literature White – A new approach to the publication of archaeological assessment reports

Michael Rains _ York Archaeological Trust

Abstract: Within York Archaeological Trust (YAT), as in many other organisations, archaeological assessment and similar reports have traditionally been produced as word-processed paper documents distributed to just the immediate stakeholders in the project without wider publication to the archaeological community (hence the term ‘grey literature'). This situation has for some time been seen as a major impediment to archaeological research. The OASIS project hosted by the Archaeological Data Service ( and funded by English Heritage (, aims to address one aspect of this problem by creating an online index to the mass of grey literature. Meanwhile, developments in information technology, particularly the Internet, and the changing requirements of the target audience have allowed YAT to look afresh at another aspect of the problem: the methods by which we produce and publish grey literature reports. The Integrated Archaeological Database (IADB) is YAT's in-house data management system. It is a web-based system accessible over the Trust's intranet and contains all primary excavation data along with tools for post-excavation data analysis. When complete, the IADB database for a project forms the primary archive for that project and is increasingly being used as the basis for internet publication of selected YAT projects in the Archaeology of York Web Series ( We are now looking at ways in which we can streamline the production process of grey literature, integrate it more closely into the IADB digital archive, and make it more widely accessible via simple publication on the YAT website. We have begun by looking at the content of grey literature and how it relates to existing elements of the IADB archive. A typical grey literature assessment report might consist of four main sections: background, excavation results, finds reports, and conclusions, each of which will contain various sub-sections. The second and third of these will generally be the largest and can be mapped directly to existing elements within the IADB archive such as Phase records and Finds assemblage Objects, while the other sections of the report can be created as Documents within the IADB archive. To bring together all these elements of the IADB archive into an electronic grey literature report has required the development within IADB of a mechanism for the creation of an electronic publication plan listing all the required elements, which then effectively forms the Contents Page of the report. It is hoped that this approach will enable YAT to produce, with very little extra work, both high quality reports, for which we often have a contractual obligation, and complete and accessible project archives, for which we have a professional obligation.

e-Culture : An Interpretive Evaluation Framework

Heinz Klein, Emmanuel Monod _

State University of New York at Binghamton ,

Paris Dauphine University , Georgia State University , emmanuel.monod@dauphine.frr

Abstract: This paper proposes a framework for evaluating information systems in cultural heritage. It relies on Interpretive Archaeology and on IS interpretive research methods in SI. The research hypothesis underlying this paper is that the Phenomenology of Heidegger is a preferred and much neglected basis for assessing the requirements of e-heritage systems from a phenomenological perspective. The first part of this paper is theoretical and will discuss the great potential of a phenomenological evaluation of concrete Information Systems. It starts by an investigation of the users requirements in an industry that has not been studied much in IS research and practice: cultural heritage interpretation, especially the presentation of historical cities and archaeological sites. Then section two extracts evaluation principles from Heidegger's monograph on Being and Time for these systems, called e-heritage systems. In a third section, these principles are used for the evaluation of recent examples of e-heritage systems in Europe, especially the ARCHEOGUIDE system in Olympia . Keywords: Heidegger's phenomenology, systems evaluation, cultural heritage, archaeology, e-heritage systems

OBAB - Õn-line Banat Archaeological Bibliography

Dorel Micle _ West University of Timisoara

Abstract: OBAB - On-line Banat Archaeological Bibliography OBAB is attempting to become a bibliographical documentation instrument for archaeologists in Romania and abroad who, through the Internet, will have access to specialty articles in the profile magazines from the Banat region. The interested ones will find two types of data: a. a general bibliographical repertoire referring to archaeological sites in Banat, which will contain a list with all the articles published in all the magazines in Romania; b. a full-text database (*pdf format) with all archaeology articles published in specialty magazines in Banat (Analale Banatului – Timisoara, Studii de Istoria Banatului – Timisoara, Tibiscus – Caransbes, Banatica – Resita, s. a.). The access will be free, but counted; the visitors will be asked to create an account, through which they will be able to download any information they need. We are willing to e-publish, with the author's agreement, specialty books in Romania , in full-text format, for both Romanian researchers and, especially, foreign researchers, who do not have access to the Romanian Archaeological bibliography. OBAB's range will cover all archaeological sites since Prehistory and up until The Middle Age.

14 - Catching things: Field Work Archaeology


Archaeoscope – 3D interface for stratigraphy visulization

Bogdan Bobowski _ University of Zielona Gora

Abstract: Paper overview Many archaeologists use classical methods of drawing by hand the Harris Matrix. Even simple software is complicated or cost of licence is too expensive. Standard in Harris Matrix software is 2D interface, because it's easy to print. We have many different applications for analisys of archaeological context and stratigraphy,such as BASP, ArchEd, Stratify, Proleg etc. Applications mostly work only on one platform – MS. Windows. Archaeoscope is meant to be easy to learn, also web based simple software for modern archaeologists. Revelance Software will allow to manage stratigraphical informations and produce visualizations of stratigraphy in the 3D interface. We plan to produce classical MS. Windows client interface and web based application also. Modern net client will allow to access application from any computer platform and every place on the earth only with web browser. For web client installation step is simple, there is no installation on personal terminal. In fact we do not like to open special archeological web service with possibility of using application on personal accounts. We woul like to publish the source of application. Open Source is attractive and will turning application more flexible and more accesible by a wide community. We hope that possibility of Open Source allow to produce transformations and independent versions of Archaeoscope up to the special archaeological web services. Goals The goal of the paper is to facilitate understanding of the Harris Matrix drawings on 3D model. Stratigraphy of archaeological site with contexts in spatial model of terrain will understood for more persons, especially for non archaeologists. I would like to share my idea of taking new software into use. The workgroup of Archaeoscope consist archaeologists and computer specialists ( official site: ) . It is additional tool for archaeologists use context databases with and without implemented Harris Matrix . Application is directed to modern scientificts with ideas to add the 3-rd dimension to the stratigraphy. Reference As debated in the last CAA conferrence (held in Prato in April 2004) even traditional GIS is changing and ask more 3D interfaces. It is important to start a serious debate on archaeological issues with the third dimension in mind for Harris Matrix applications. Improvements It is possible to produce 3D additional documentation of stratigraphy. The result of new idea stratigraphy drawings is not easy to print but is easy to publish as digital attachment (f.e. CD or URL to the related web site) to the traditional article or report from the site. Results Preparing of prototype system is in progress. Software will increse efficiency during the fieldwork and improve the quality of documentation. The connection between archaeologists and nonspecialists during the fieldwork will become clear. The initial thought that every field archaeologist should be able to do clear stratigraphy drawings and GIS analisys, presented to the Heritage Board and investors. All materials will be prepared in Polish and English. The main aim in choosing the software is possible to create acceptable 3D application based on the X-VRML language, presented to a user results vithin standard VRML browser plug-in like f.e. Cortona produced by ParallelGraphics.

Linking 2D Harris Matrix with 3D Stratigraphic Visualisations: an integrated approach to archaeological Visualisations

Wendy Day, John Cosmas, Nick Ryan, Tijl Vereenooghe, Luc Van Gool, Marc Waelkens and Peter Talloen _ Brunel University

Abstract: This paper will present the first results of a new approach to recording and visualising archaeological excavations using integrated 3D and Harris Matrix data entry, query and visualisations tools. Accurate records of stratigraphic sequences in an archaeological excavation are crucial for post-excavation analysis. Traditional recording techniques capture 2D or 2.5D surface plans of stratigraphic units. Relationships between units are recorded and the sequence is visualised as a 2D abstract model, the Harris Matrix. Several software tools have been developed to assist in this task, replacing earlier time-consuming and error-prone paper-based methods. Recent progress in photogrammetry and other 3D recording techniques has also made it possible to visualise excavated layers in a 3D space. Computer technology has thus developed to incorporate photogrammetric models, enabling archaeologists to view and analyse excavations within the 3D world in which they work. A review of existing tools has shown that whilst each approach to visualising excavated layers has particular strengths, individually they do not provide a level of understanding that is required for a ‘complete picture'. A computer generated Harris Matrix diagram is essential for understanding stratigraphic relationships, whilst a 3D model is extremely effective for the visual comparison of the form and structural relationships of these layers. We conclude that 2D abstract models and 3D views provide different, but complementary, benefits in the analysis of an archaeological excavation. For archaeologists to significantly benefit from both of these tools, we believe that linked 2D and 3D views should be available. This paper describes a first attempt to provide such linking. Two tools providing suitable visualisations are the jnet graph tool and the Stratigraphic Visualisation Tool (STRAT). Jnet is a 2D Harris Matrix tool that allows the user to analyse stratigraphic relationships between layers and manipulate data. The STRAT tool is a 3D world in which archaeologists can navigate and explore in detail the layers of an excavation. The integration tool uses XML to communicate between jnet and STRAT providing a standard description method to facilitate the data exchange. XML is the native data format for jnet, so it provides seamless software mapping between the two tools. Import and export software incorporated within both STRAT and jnet transforms and stores this data in a structure suitable for exchange between the 2D (jnet) and 3D (STRAT) applications. The result of this software solution is a flexible composite software tool allowing two different views of a site, which archaeologists can use to model, view and analyse their excavations more effectively. A test excavation was carried out in Sagalassos ( Turkey ) in the summer of 2004. After documenting and registering the stratigraphic data on site, it was entered into the new tool. Sections of a Harris Matrix, such as a particular trench, can be viewed to establish relationships between strata. Navigation in 3D within a trench permits viewing from all angles and replaying through the stratigraphic sequence. The results, presented in this paper show the high potential of this approach for future archaeological research.

“On the fly” 3D-documentation for rescue exavations: A church excavation at Hanerau-Hademarschen, Northern Germany

Philip Lüth M.A. _ Archäologisches Landesamt Schleswig, Holstein

Abstract: This paper is aiming at two proposals: Firstly it deals with the question of how to integrate different interest groups within a rescue excavation project. Secondly I would like to demonstrate a quick and easy way of raising data that is needed to allow accurate 3D-reconstructions. In September 2004, an excavation of a church located about 70 kilometers north of Hamburg was started (by the region´s archeological authorities). The building had burned down in a big fire a few days after Christmas 2003. As it was decided to reconstruct the church, it was also clear that archeological supervision was inevitable in order to preserve acheological finds. This example of a church excavation involved a bundle of different organisations and interest groups, which were somehow related to the topic: There were three state-run departments on the one hand, such as the ecclesiastical construction office, the office for perservation of ancient monuments and the archeological department of the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein; on the other hand there were two “private” groups, as for example the local congregation which played an important role in raising the money (for what?) and eventually there were several architectural offices which participated in a design contest for the rebuilding of the church, a precondition of which was the integration of the excavation results in the reconstrucion. The money for the excavation could not be granted at once but in two steps. For this it was necessary to present the archeological results in a way that all the different parties could understand. In order to achieve as much comprehensiveness as possible we decided to try “on the fly” 3D-reconstructions of the excavation results. Therefore we needed a 3D-model of the church with the measurement data of the building and photogrametric textures. It was essential for the presentation of the results to get the 3D data as exact as we could, and the same was necessary for the surfaces and the photogrametic textures. Both, the model and the developing data allowed step by step reconstruction of the old church building, which also required a lot of different software. The first was provided by a local achitectural office which had documented actual state of the building after the fire for the assurance company. They made both their CAD-data and the photographic documentation of the inner and outer walls of the building availabe for us. The latter was achieved by measuring the archeological surfaces as exact as possible with a simple total station. The photos were taken from the truss of the building. The aim was to have a 3D –visualisation and reconstructions at hand as soon as possible, for we had to give regular reports to the locals congregation on the progress of the work. For this we used both graphic and scientific software such as 3D-Studio Max, Photoshop, Surfer, AutoCAD, and ArcView. In the progress of the excavation we developed some simple methods to document archeological data quickly and easily in the a 3D-way, with adequate accuracy and in a good graphical quality. link:

Using Mobile Information Systems for Automatic Data Acquisition of Complex Archaeological Sites

Andrea Maurino _ Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione Politecnico di Milano

Abstract: Paper overview In this paper we present preliminary results of a prototype for the automatic data acquisition of the archaeological site of Castelseprio, the ancient Vico Seprio, one of the most interesting areas of Lombardia, including Roman walls (the so called "Castrum") and relics of buildings erected in the Middle Ages. The village was destroyed by Ottone Visconti in the Fourteenth century and the area has been re-discovered in 1945. At present, excavations have led to extremely interesting findings which allegedly precede the Roman settlement such as some objects in ceramics (Fourth- First century b.C.) and objects in flint stone (3000-1400 b.C.) We first translated the MA-CA record card (Monumenti Archeologico, Sito Archeologico - Archaeological Monuments, Archaeological sites) defined by ICCD (Istituto Centrale di Catalogazione e Documentazione - Institute for the Catalogue and Documentation) into an automatic executable process, then we show some benefit obtained thanks to the use of cooperative and mobile information systems. We conduct our experiment starting on the data provided by Archaeological Superintendence of Lombardia. Relevance The registration of archaeological data in electronic way has become more and more important thanks to the introduction of complex and data-intensive analysis (e.g. GIS) and to the digital libraries Internet-based. Presently, a lot of efforts are spent to digitalize data stored in paper form; this process is expensive, time-consuming and source of data-entry errors. The possibility to register data directly in electronic way could help archaeologists and improve the data quality of their analysis. Unfortunately the existing technologies are not able to capture data directly on site, due the intrinsic hardware limitation (e.g. the weight of devices or the need of continuous supply power). The use of mobile devices can solve such limitation; and it can be used to execute some basic analysis too. In fact archaeologists, by means of MobIS, can acquire, directly in electronic form, data (both textual, images or graph) and can analyzed them in the same time. The possibility to share data and applications through a network of devices allow archaeologists to access and use a broader set of information solutions also able to analyze quickly registered data and allow using of cooperative approach in the data analysis. In the field of cultural heritage, it is not only relevant to register, in the most precise way possible, data about goods. It is also relevant to know the evolution of preservation status of the site, through keeping following updates of description card, and consequently to maintain this information in a persistent and easily extractable way Goals The prototype shows the use of Mobile Information Systems (MobIS) as a new approach to support archaeology in three ways: data acquisition of huge set of multimedia data, cooperation during the registration phase and in creation of an incremental temporal database. In fact, the introduction of mobile technologies (that is new devices and networks) allows the design and implementation of new application scenario, which cannot be realized with already existing technologies. Mobile devices such as laptop and PDA (personal digital assistant) have performances quite close to fixed PC, but it is also possible to bring them even in open fields. New network technologies such as GPRS, UMTS and wireless LAN (e.g. 802.11) allow connecting mobile devices by creating the so-called Mobile Information Systems (MobIS). In the field of data acquisition of archaeology sites the use of MobIS can really support operators in order to reduce the time for acquiring complex information about sites, often placed in non-urban context. Moreover operators have to cooperate to filling site description cards; for example an archaeologist has to point out to photographer not only what good to take a photo, but also he has to provide some further information, mandatory to identify photos in the analysis phase. The need of supporting operators to collaborate in the filling phase is the second goal of MobIS. The last goal is to provide of a temporal database management system able to store all updates of MA-CA record card and to return its contents at a given time. Reference In last years several projects have studied the application of mobile device in the field of archaeology, for example RAMSES and PAST realized by the university of Genova ( Italy ), and FieldMap realized by University of Kent (UK). However such works focused on the possibility to use mobile devices as intelligent instruments for acquiring data instead of traditional paper forms approach. Starting from these projects, we exploit the computational power of new devices and the connectivity of mobile networks to build a networks of devices not only able to acquire data in outdoor environment without the need of fixed infrastructure, but also to partially elaborate them transforming raw data into meaningful information. Moreover the use of temporal database can help archaeologist to store all modification occurred in the site and described by means of the MA-CA record card and easily return the result of MA-CA record card at a given time. Results We define a decentralized approach in execution of filling process of MA-CA record card in order to overcome intrinsic restriction of new mobile technologies, e.g. the limited battery of devices, and current limitation of mobile technologies, e.g. it is impossible to build a fully-working mobile ad hoc network with one or more different technologies covering wide area. In particular, we first group operators into sets, according to the specific expertise of each one; then we have defined a generic automatic partitioning approach, based on formalism of graph transformation systems, to decompose a process into a set of sub processes each one executable over a reduced set of device where MobIS work properly. Appropriate synchronization activities are introduced into the partitioned processes to allow operators to execute their activities as if a unique foreman coordinates them even they are not directly connected to him. Within the process an operator can ask to another operator to share data or application; for example an operator can ask to another one to use a digital camera to capture a interesting details that he described in a textual way. As explain before, the third goal of our prototype is to use temporal database to store progression of MA-CA record card. For this reason, after each acquisition data activity the new data do not over write existing ones, but, we developed a temporal database able to provide the evolution of site documentation thanks to TimeDB, a temporal database managements systems supporting a temporal extension of well-know SQL language. Improvements The main efforts of prototype are based on the partitioning of process, reliability of the MobIS and temporal synchronization of data already stored. The next step is to define multi-modal interface supporting easy paradigm for data-entry operation. With the term multi-modal, we refer to the availability to use multiple modalities to fill items of MA-CA description card. Multi-modal approach enables the individual to use hand-held devices, such as wireless phones or PDAs, to mix text, graphics, and voice. It allows for faster data input by integrating speech and the keypad, and it's easier to review the output. Moreover we are also interested in the generalization of our approach to support the acquisition of whatever description card. This work is still going up and it is developing within the Italian MURST-FIRB Project MAIS (Multi-channel Adaptive Information Systems)

Calculating and Analyzing Artifact Orientations using Total Station Derived Data

Shannon JP. McPherron, Harold L. Dibble _ Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Abstract: It is well understood that the orientations of artifacts, of fauna, and of the geological constituents of an archaeological layer can be useful in assessing site formation processes. There are a number of ways in which orientations can be recorded. This paper describes a method we have used at a number of Paleolithic sites to, in effect, automatically record artifact orientations while piece proveniencing them with a total station. Two points are recorded for elongated artifacts, and these coordinates are used to calculate the object's orientation (both bearing and plunge). Orientations are then analyzed and plotted using an Eigenvalue method that represents multiple types of possible patterning in three dimensional data. The results are then compared with data derived from other archaeological contexts and from experimental contexts.

Automated simple context sheets processing

Bogdan Bobowski _ University of Zielona Gora

Abstract: Paper overview Context sheets are by their nature structured data can be transferred to digital format without much problems. In the course of field archaeologists lives we fill in hundreds of forms. At the same time computers have become indispensable for collecting and managing information, making the task of extracting data from printed documents even more pressing. Paper presents an overview of the existing data capture technologies used to extract hand-printed text from completed forms. Revelance Experience shows that processing more than 100 hand filled context sheets per day by one archaeologist requires better solution as traditional manul data input database. Field workers will be able to concentrate on their specific task and deliver the best quality. Presented software is a distributed data capture solution that can process practically unlimited numbers of forms. When completing a form one has to enter information into blank spaces or specially designed fields that make up the structure of the form. This information must then be extracted and processed. Forms from which data can be extracted, or "captured", automatically by computer are called machine-readable. Almost any form can be structured in such a way as to become machine-readable. Additionally, the program can assemble multi-page documents and validate data using sophisticated rules. Goals The goal of the paper is to present my experience with using Abby software products ( ) as applications for field archaeology. I present the potential of modern OCR software solution for managing information from classic simple context sheets. Archaeological information is produced on site in large amount every day. In many cases it's important to have actual context database on site (of course if you use portable computer in the fieldwork). Manual actualization of database from paper forms to digital format take time and need special operator. It's much faster to scan paper forms and automate the process of database building. Reference This paper present the current status of usefull for archaeology OCR software which has been development for the last 10 years. Archaeological simple context sheets are typical forms. Software is designed for every kind of form which are also widely used in business, insurance companies, marketing agencies, educational institutions, banking industry, mail orders, coupons, medical forms, utility bills and many more. Improvements This paper presents a sophisticated method of recording and processing excavation data from paper forms. The paper describes how OCR software contributes to a greater overall working efficiency in the field archaeology. Results Not designed specially for archeaology software increse efficiency during the fieldwork and improve the quality of documentation. Finally, verified and validated data are saved to a file or exported to a database. All the operator needs to do is to click the "Export" button. Throughout the entire data capture process the involvement of the operator is kept to a minimum. More importantly, the operator's actions are strictly circumscribed, which greatly reduces the chance of errors. Therefore, automated forms processing is not only much faster than manual data entry but produces much more accurate results. The speed of scanning in this particular case is not very crucial, because packing and loading goods takes a lot more time than scanning orders. This means that even a flat-bed scanner will do. Unlike desktop systems usually do not save data to files. Very often a special export module is created which exports data into an external data storage or management system. An alternative method of exporting data is to save them into an XML file which can then be processed by a specially created XML analyser. Software support saving in XML.

Upgrading the Digital Field Assistant

Nick Ryan , Martijn Van Leusen

Groningen Institute of Archaeology

In an earlier article (Ryan & Van Leusen 2002) we described the ongoing development of an easily portable field kit for self-location, mapping, and note-taking during archaeological fieldwork, called the Digital Field Assistant. The system was evaluated, and lines for further development set out, on the basis of basic usability tests conducted during field surveys of the Groningen Institute of Archaeology in central and southern Italy . In this article we describe the further field tests and technical developments to the system that in the years 2001-2004, and which have led to a stable and relatively cheap field kit based on commercially available components and the FieldMap/FieldNote software developed at the University of Kent Computing Laboratory.